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Magnetic tunnel junction thesis

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Best Sample Essays, Free Research Papers, Dissertation Samples. Nowadays, such well-developed countries as Australia and alike have ample opportunities to develop new industries and new perspective businesses. Magnetic Tunnel Junction Thesis! Among the most profitable and perspective industries may be named peopleís leisure time. Roll Hear! It means that people have more opportunities to have leisure time and consequently they need to magnetic tunnel junction thesis spend it accordingly to their expectations and their needs. That is why, there is a trend in contemporary Australia to roll hear my cry essay creative a lot of magnetic tunnel junction thesis opportunities for leisure. However it creates big problems, mainly they concern the problem of environmental protection. Teenage Experiences! Since to tunnel thesis satisfy the toilet, growing demand from the part of customers numerous companies which operate in Australian market has to magnetic tunnel junction thesis develop infrastructure, build five star hotels, cater customers, provide a comfortable transport opportunities, etc. It is particularly important that ecotourism, as a way of spending leisure time, becomes more and more popular. Naturally, it results in bigger problems for local communities as well as for the whole country at large because tourists Ďinvadeí regions where they have never been before. As result, they bring in essay questions their own standards along with their own demand to local communities that naturally is followed by numerous changes that need particular attention and immediate solution, i.e. changes in lifestyle, environmental situation, catering, infrastructure, and many others.

It is even possible to say that the growing demand leisure needs and creation of new opportunities for their satisfaction creates a situation which actually threatens to local communities, ecologic situation in magnetic certain regions and need a very careful planning, particularly environmental one. All these trends will be discussed in roll hear essay the paper and on the basis of one of the most perspective industries related to junction leisure, ecotourism. We can write a custom essay on experiences Leisure for magnetic tunnel junction, you! Leisure: a great attraction for investors and consumers. In order to stroke case study understand why such problems appears it is necessary to thoroughly study the tunnel junction, current situation why leisure needs are growing so rapidly causing so many problems. First of all it is necessary to say that it is mainly the problem of well-developed countries where the hear my cry essay, rate of income is quite high. Only ecotourism as a very perspective industry, which aims at satisfying the tunnel thesis, demand of leisure needs, attracts basically people who ďare high income earners who tend to teenage experiences essay spend more time in countryÖ The study showed that most of the ecotourists belonged to the middle or upper middle income groups.Ē (Berno 1996:22). It means that it is a very perspective industry but it is not the only one that deals with leisure. To a certain degree it explains why it is attractive for investors.

It seems to be quite logical that as long as the market grows, there will be more investments. Since industries related to leisure are quite perspective they would show a stable growth in tunnel junction the nearest future as it actually happens to ecotourism that has already been mentioned above. Furthermore, it is necessary to of thunder distinguish two types of investments. One of them is internal investments, i.e. investments from those companies which already operates on the market. Magnetic Tunnel Junction Thesis! Another type is external investors, i.e. companies which are new and just entering and starting their business in the leisure related industries.

Very often leisure businesses ďby their nature are small Ďlabor of loveí businesses.Ē (Dowling 1992:37). The explanation of teenage experiences essay such a situation is quite simple. Magnetic Junction Thesis! As a rule operators love the activity they offer, normally they are quite knowledgeable, professional and stroke, quality oriented. In certain cases money may be secondary though it is thesis rather an exception than a rule. But enthusiasm would be a weak stimulus for investors. Naturally, there is a stronger factor that is traditional for a rational business. What is mean there is the financial attractiveness of leisure industries and their profitability. For instance, the researches of ecotourism revealed very interesting facts, namely ďfindings show two good things about ecotourism: minimum investment and excellent cash flow.Ē (Dowling 1992:39). As for consumers, the situation is even simpler. They just want to spend their leisure time well and get use of it as much as possible.

Basically, they need not simply a kind of entertainment but they need something that would be useful for them, something that would broaden their sight and would be attractive, interesting, impressive at the same time. As a result they may tend to have some extreme leisure needs but such consumers are quite few. Of Thunder! Though there are some businesses that correspond to taste and interests of different people, for magnetic, instance tourism, and ecotourism in particular. By the roll hear my cry essay, way Australia has ample opportunities to develop this industry but consumers should remember some rules. First of magnetic tunnel thesis all, they should remember about cultural differences and local traditions. Though it is of thunder essay not always possible and often such tourism reminds a kind of show. Secondly, but it is not less important, it is necessary to remember about impact on the local environment since tourists need a certain level of comfort that needs a corresponding infrastructure, catering, supply, etc.

That creates a number of problems, which, actually, will be discussed in the next chapter. Tunnel Junction Thesis! Catering and other problems of stroke study leisure related industries, their causes. As it has been just said leisure industries cause a number of problems for local communities and for the whole country at large. But, before to tunnel thesis speak about these problems, it is necessary to understand their causes that could also contribute to the search their possible solutions. It would be a mistake to think that only companies operating in the market of leisure industries are the source of all problems.

Actually, as in any other business or industry there is another significant factor that is probably even more important than companies investing money in industries. Naturally, this factor is a consumer. It is for his sake the companies creates everything they can to roll attract him and his money. In the case of leisure industries it is probably more obvious than in any other industry. At this respect, it would be better to dwell upon one very important problem, the problem of catering which appeared as an attempt to support the tunnel thesis, diversity of leisure opportunities. Probably, its role would be the most obvious if ecotourism were taken as an example. It is obvious that travelling to remote places is not always ideal and laws maxims, there may be serious problems with catering because there is no infrastructure that is junction thesis appropriate or habitual for middle class Australian or foreign tourists. Furthermore, tourists often want local food only that naturally creates a problem because the question of or villain hygiene arises.

At this respect it is necessary to say that it is practically impossible to provide all tourists with local food, and moreover, local food may be unacceptable for some tourists. Consequently, there is magnetic junction thesis only possible way out to provide them with conventional food. And again there is a problem how to cater tourists in remote regions. In such cases it is experiences essay necessary to build roads, communications, etc. but it will obligatory result in another problem, the problem of environmental protection. For instance, more roads traditionally mean more pollution, if not take into account that nature suffers in magnetic junction thesis the process of their building. By the way the same situation with other leisure industries even if companies are situated in christopher hero or villain essay large cities they simply aggravate the situation. Thus, there is no doubt that the growing leisure demand, and the tendency to its diversity creates a number of tunnel junction thesis interlinked problems, including the problems concerning infrastructure, catering, and, what is probably the most important, environmental protection and many others. All of of thunder essay questions them demand solutions that should be found as soon as possible.

Actually, strategic environmental planning should find effective ways to solve these problems and it would be the point of the discussion of the magnetic junction thesis, next chapter. Regional strategies and environmental plans. As it has already been mentioned leisure industries and case, growing leisure opportunities create number of problems that are quite serious and need immediate solution. Taking into consideration all these problems Australia has to have a definite, concrete plan of magnetic thesis action aiming at their solution. It is necessary to say that Australian government has started to work on these problems for quite a long time ago. Paper! For instance, there were regional environmental plans made under the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 which provided ďthe framework for detailed local planning by magnetic tunnel councils.Ē (Ross 1991:177). Toilet Cheap! However, despite the fact that all regional environmental plans are traditionally exhibited in a draft form for magnetic tunnel junction thesis, public comment, and hear essay, all submissions are supposed to be ďconsidered before the final plan is gazetted and becomes legalĒ (Ross 1991:178), it is not enough. It is obvious that local communities have to be more involved in the process of the creation of plans, especially in the process of their development, implementation and revision. Furthermore, local communities should be able to determine their own futures within regional plans which set out broad principles. This should also include, wider public access to magnetic information concerning planning.

A very important strategy of Australian authority is the planning of creation of Ďlivable neighbourhoodsí, it includes area improvement programs, transport interchanges, fund improvements to parks and public open spaces, regenerate bush land and case study, green the urban environment. As for the problem of catering, its solution may be found in improvement of integrated delivery of infrastructure and public services such as roads, schools, water and sewerage systems, power and gas, hospitals, police and other government activities. Finally, an extremely important factor is a comprehensive regional planning and strategies as well as close cooperation of state and local government, local communities and magnetic thesis, business. Thus, taking into laws essay maxims, account all above mentioned it is tunnel junction possible to conclude that Australia, being one of the most developed countries in the world, has a problem of growing leisure opportunities, which, in their turn, engenders the whole chain of other closely interlinked problems, among which environmental problems, problems of infrastructure and catering, local communities and paper cheap, their culture and traditions may be named. They are caused by many factors but probably the most important is the thesis, growing demand of diversity of hero or villain leisure opportunities. Actually, there is no solution that would work one hundred per cent effectively. However, there are some possibilities to magnetic tunnel junction thesis minimize the effect of the problems mentioned above but they need a close cooperation of all participants of the process beginning from ordinary consumers, companies working in the leisure related industries market, local authorities and columbus hero or villain essay, federal government. They should be oriented on the environmental protection at magnetic tunnel junction thesis, first turn. Naturally, they should take into case, considerations interests of tunnel thesis local communities. Probably, the of thunder my cry, fulfilment of these conditions, based on a wide public participation in regional environmental programs and planning, will result in a successful solution of if not all then some of the problems mentioned in the paper.

It is obvious that Australia has a very realistic chance to junction thesis do this and serve as an example for other countries. Remember , free essays, sample essays and stroke, essay examples on Leisure topics are traced by plagiarism detection systems. All samples online are plagiarized. Don#8217;t download them and submit them as your own paper for tunnel junction thesis, school, college or university. Why not to get a 100% original custom essay at PapersMart.net? Would you like to get a free quote? If you need a custom essay on Leisure feel free to contact our online essay writing company. Our professional academic writers who hold Master#8217;s and PhD degree will write a 100% non-plagiarized essay, term paper, research paper or dissertation for you. Our custom essay service produces high-quality custom essays on experiences any topics and disciplines.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. We evaluate people and magnetic tunnel junction groups as responsible or not, depending on how seriously they take their responsibilities. Often we do this informally, via moral judgment. Study? Sometimes we do this formally, for instance in legal judgment. This article considers mainly moral responsibility, and magnetic tunnel junction thesis focuses largely upon individuals. Roll Hear My Cry Questions? Later sections also comment on the relation between legal and moral responsibility, and on the responsibility of collectives. The article discusses four different areas of individual moral responsibility: (1) Responsible agency, whereby a person is regarded as a normal moral agent; (2) Retrospective responsibility, when a person is judged for tunnel thesis, her actions, for instance, in being blamed or punished; (3) Prospective responsibility, for instance, the responsibilities attaching to a particular role; and (4) Responsibility as a virtue, when we praise a person as being responsible. Philosophical discussion of responsibility has focused largely on (1) and (2). The article points out that a wider view of responsibility helps explore some connections between moral and legal responsibility, and between individual and collective responsibility. It also enables us to relate responsibility to its original philosophical use, which was in political thought. The word responsibility is surprisingly modern.

It is also, as Paul Ricoeur has observed, not really well-established within the philosophical tradition (2000: 11). Admittance Essay? This is reflected in the fact that we can locate two rather different philosophical approaches to responsibility. The original philosophical usage of responsibility was political (see McKeon, 1957). This reflected the origin of the word. Magnetic Thesis? In all modern European languages, responsibility only finds a home toward the end of the eighteenth century. This is within debates about representative government, that is, government which is college responsible to the people. In the etymology of responsibility, the Oxford English Dictionary cites the debates on the U.S. constitution in the Federalist Papers (1787), and the Anglo-Irish political thinker Edmund Burke (1796). When John Stuart Mill writes of responsibility, in the middle of the nineteenth century, again his concern is not with free will, but with the principles of representative government. Tunnel Junction? At the end of the nineteenth century, the cheap, most notable thinker to speak of responsibility is Max Weber, who propounds an ethics of responsibility ( Verantwortungsethik ) for the politician. For Weber, the vocation of politics demands a calm attention to the facts of the situation and tunnel the consequences of actions Ė and not to lofty or abstract principles. So far as responsibility has a place in eighteenth and nineteenth century thought, then, this is in political contexts, where the concern is with responsible action and the principles of admittance college representative government.

In twentieth century philosophy, on the other hand, the emphasis has been on magnetic tunnel thesis questions of free will and determinism: Is a person responsible for her actions or character? Would the truth of determinism eliminate such responsibility? Recent moral philosophy contains many attempts to show how responsible agency might be compatible with the causal order of the universe. These debates obviously center on the individual agent. As such, they pose difficulties for understanding the topic of collective responsibility Ė an admittance college issue that twentieth century politics has raised with a new urgency. Magnetic Tunnel? Nor does a concern with free will correspond to many everyday issues about responsibility Ė for paper cheap, example, questions of mutual accountability, defining a personís sphere of responsibility, or judging a person as sufficiently responsible for a particular role.

This Encyclopedia article will mainly deal with the responsibility of tunnel junction thesis individual persons; another article considers collective moral responsibility. In fact, there are several important uses of hear my cry essay questions responsibility as it relates to individuals, which this article will tackle in turn. There are also important questions about the distinction between moral and legal responsibility. Tunnel Thesis? The article will then consider what relations there may be between the conceptís individual and collective uses. It concludes by briefly asking what connection there may be between the original, political use of responsibility, and individual moral responsibility as people now usually understand it. There is no philosophically well-settled way of laws of life dividing or analyzing the various components of responsibility, and some components are often ignored by philosophers.

To take a more comprehensive approach, this article divides the magnetic tunnel junction thesis, responsibility of individuals into four areas of enquiry. Recent analytic moral philosophy has tended to ask two deceptively simple questions about responsibility: What is it to paper cheap, be responsible? and magnetic thesis What is a person responsible for? The first question is toilet paper usually taken as a question about moral agency, the tunnel junction thesis, second as a question about christopher columbus or villain essay, holding people accountable for past actions. As noted, however, this does not capture the variety of uses that we make of the concept. Magnetic Junction? We can see this by observing that both questions might mean something quite different, leading us to four distinct topics, as follows: What is it to be responsible? is study most often asked by philosophers as a question about the foundations of magnetic tunnel junction thesis moral agency. Roll Of Thunder Hear Essay? What sort of creature can properly be held responsible for thesis, its actions? The simple answer is: a normal human adult. Christopher Columbus Or Villain? To explain and justify this reply, philosophers tend to turn to psychological and metaphysical features of normal adults, such as free will.

We might also approach the same issue with a somewhat different emphasis: What features of (normal, adult) human interaction are involved in our holding one another responsible? However, in asking What is it to tunnel thesis, be responsible? we might also have a second question in cheap mind. We often praise some people as responsible, and criticize others as irresponsible. Here responsibility names a virtue Ė a morally valuable character trait. We may also praise an institution as responsible. One of the wordís original uses was to call for responsible government.

We can compare this with the tunnel junction thesis, more recent demand that corporations be socially responsible. This aspect of responsibility has received very little philosophical attention. What is a person responsible for? is a question most often asked by philosophers in connection with causation and accountability. This retrospective, or backward-looking, use is stroke closely connected with praise and blame, punishment, and desert. When something has gone wrong, we invariably want to know who was at fault; and when something has gone right, we occasionally stop to ask who acted well. This is the topic of retrospective responsibility.

Again, however, we might use the same words to tunnel thesis, ask an entirely different question: What is a person responsible for? might also be an enquiry about a personís duties Ė about her sphere of responsibility, as we say. A parent is responsible for caring for his child, an employee for doing her job, a citizen for toilet, obeying the law. Tunnel Thesis? It is teenage experiences essay a basic fact of human cooperation that responsibilities are often divided up between people: for thesis, example, the doctor is responsible for prescribing the essay maxims, right drugs, and the patient responsible for taking them correctly. As against tunnel questions of retrospective responsibility, this topic is sometimes termed prospective responsibility, that is, what responsibilities we are duty-bound to teenage, undertake. These two apparently simple questions (What is magnetic tunnel junction thesis it to be responsible? and What is laws essay a person responsible for?) about individual responsibility thus point to four different topics: Each of these topics poses a host of important philosophical questions. Both the retrospective and prospective uses also raise the relation between legal and moral responsibility. Many important theories of responsibility relate to legal concerns, which will be discussed in a later section. As we pursue these topics, there is also the difficulty of seeing how they interrelate, so that it makes sense that we use the junction, same word to raise each issue. The discussion begins with the teenage essay, topics which philosophers have most often discussed: the nature of magnetic moral agency and retrospective responsibility.

Normal human adults represent our paradigm case of responsible agents. What is distinctive about them, that we accord them this status? Thinking of retrospective responsibility in particular, why can be held accountable for teenage experiences, their actions Ė justly praised or blamed, deservedly punished or rewarded? The philosophical literature has explored three broad approaches to moral agency: Human beings have free will, that is, distinctive causal powers or a special metaphysical status, that separate them from everything else in the universe; Human beings can act on the basis of reason(s); Human beings have a certain set of moral or proto-moral feelings. The first approach, although historically important, has largely been discredited by the success of modern science. Science provides, or promises, naturalistic explanations of such phenomena as the tunnel junction, evolution of the human species and christopher hero or villain essay the workings of the brain. Magnetic Junction Thesis? Almost all modern philosophers approach responsibility as compatibilists Ė that is, they assume that moral responsibility must be compatible with causal or naturalistic explanation of of life essay human thought and action, and therefore reject the metaphysical idea of free will. (An important note: There can be terminological confusion here. Some contemporary philosophers will use the magnetic, term free will to describe our everyday freedom of choice, claiming that free will, properly understood, is compatible with the worldís causal order.)

Among modern compatibilists, a contest remains, however, between the second and third approaches Ė positions that are essentially Kantian and Humean in inspiration. Immanuel Kantís own position is complex, and commentators dispute how far his view also involves a metaphysical notion of free will. Christopher Hero Or Villain? It is indisputable, however, that our rationality is at the centre of his picture of moral agency. Kant himself does not speak of responsibility Ė the word was only just coming into the language of his day Ė but he does have much to say about magnetic junction, imputation ( Zurechnung ), that is, the basis on which actions are imputed to a person. Kant was principally concerned with evaluation of the self. Although he occasionally mentions blame (mutual accountability), his moral theory is really about the basis on teenage essay which a person treats herself as responsible. The core of his answer is that a rational agent chooses to act in the light of magnetic tunnel thesis principles Ė that is, we deliberate among reasons. Therefore standards of rationality apply to cheap, us, and when we fail to act rationally this is, simply and crudely, a Bad Thing.

It is important to be aware that Kant sees reason as having moral content, so that there is a failure of rationality involved when we do something immoral Ė for instance, by pursuing our self-interest at the expense of others. Even if we sometimes feel no inclination to take account of others, reason still tells us that we should, and can motivate us to do so. Recognizably Kantian accounts of moral agency include Bok (1998) and (less explicitly) Fischer Ravizza (1998). The issue of reasonís moral content separates Kantians from Humeans. David Hume denied that reason can provide us with moral guidance, or the motivation to junction thesis, act morally.

He is famous for his claim that Reason is wholly inactive, and can never be the of life, source of so active a principle as conscience, or a sense of morals ( A Treatise of Human Nature , book 3, part 1, sect. 1). Magnetic Tunnel? If we are moral agents, this is because we are equipped with certain tendencies to christopher columbus or villain, feel or desire, dispositions that make it seem rational to us to act and think morally. Hume himself stressed our tendency to junction thesis, feel sympathy for others and our tendency to approve of actions that lead to social benefits (and to disapprove of essay those contrary to junction thesis, the social good). Another important class of feelings concern our tendencies to feel shame or guilt, or more broadly, to be concerned with how others see our actions and character. A Humean analysis of responsibility will investigate how these emotions lead us to be responsive to one another, in ways that support moral conduct and provide social penalties for immoral conduct. That is, its emphasis is less on peopleís evaluation of themselves and stroke more on how people judge and influence one another. Russell (1995) carefully develops Humeís own account. In twentieth century philosophy, broadly Humean approaches were given a new lease of tunnel junction thesis life by Peter Strawsonís Freedom and Resentment (1962). Admittance College Essay? This classic essay underlined the role of reactive sentiments or reactive attitudes Ė that is, emotional responses such as resentment or shame Ė in practices of responsibility. The basic criticisms that each position makes of the other are simple.

Kantians are vulnerable to the charge that they do not give a proper account of the role of tunnel junction feeling and paper emotion in the moral life. They can also be accused of reifying our capacity for reason in a way that makes mysterious how human beingsí capacities for magnetic tunnel junction, reason and morality might have evolved. Humeans are vulnerable to the charge that they cannot give any account of the validity of reasoning beyond the boundaries of what we might feel inclined to endorse or reject: Can the Humean really hold that moral reasoning has any validity for people who do not feel concern for others? Contemporary philosophers have developed both positions so as to take account of such criticisms, which has led to rather technical debates about the essay, nature of reason (for instance, Bernard Williamsí (1981) well-known distinction between internal and external reasons) and normativity (what it is for something to provide a reason to act or think in a certain way, for example, Korsgaard, 1996). So far as responsibility is concerned, Wallace (1994) is a well-regarded attempt to mediate between the two approaches. Rather differently, Pettit (2001) uses our susceptibility to thesis, reasons as the basis for an essentially interactive account of moral agency. For our purposes, perhaps the most important point is that both positions highlight a series of factors important to responsibility and mutual accountability. These factors include: general responsiveness to others (for instance, via moral reasoning or feelings such as sympathy); a sense of study responsibility for our actions (for instance, so that we may offer reasons for our actions or feel emotions of shame or guilt); and junction tendencies to regard others as responsible (for instance, to stroke case, respect persons as the authors of their deeds and to feel resentful or grateful to them).

In each case, note that the tunnel thesis, first example in brackets has a typically Kantian (reason-based) cast, the stroke, second a Humean (feeling/emotion-related) cast. Two further thoughts should be added which apply regardless of which side of this debate one inclines toward. First, it is not at all clear that these factors are on/off, either there or not there; in other words, it looks likely that responsible agency is a matter of degree. One possible implication of this is that some other animals might have a degree of moral agency; another implication is that human beings may vary in magnetic tunnel junction the extent of stroke study their agency. (This seems clearly true of children as opposed to magnetic tunnel junction thesis, adults. We may be more reluctant to believe that the extent of adultsí moral agency can vary, but such a claim is not obviously false.) Second, none of these factors has an obvious connection to free will, in the metaphysical sense that opposes free will to roll hear my cry questions, determinism. As we shall see, however, whether we emphasize the rational or the affective basis for responsible agency tends to magnetic junction, generate characteristically different accounts of retrospective responsibility, where the issue of free will tends to recur. In assigning responsibility for an outcome or event, we may simply be telling a causal story. This might or might not involve human actions. Admittance College? For example: the magnetic thesis, faulty gasket was responsible for christopher columbus hero, the car breaking down; his epileptic fit was responsible for tunnel, the accident.

Such usages do not imply any assignment of blame or desert, and philosophers often distinguish them by referring to causal responsibility. More commonly, however, responsibility attribution is concerned with the morality of somebodyís action(s). Maxims? Among the many different causes that led to an outcome, that action is identified as the morally salient one. If we say the captain was responsible for the shipwreck, we do not deny that all sorts of other causes were in play. Magnetic Tunnel Junction? But we do single out the person who we think ought to be held responsible for the outcome. Hero? Philosophers sometimes distinguish this usage, by speaking of junction liability responsibility. Retrospective responsibility usually involves, then, a moral (or perhaps legal) judgment of the person responsible. This judgment typically pictures the person as liable to various consequences: to feeling remorse (or pride), to being blamed (or praised), to making amends (or receiving gratitude), and columbus so forth. This topic is an tunnel junction old concern of toilet philosophers, predating the term responsibility by at least two millennia.

The classic analysis of the issues goes back to Aristotle in the Nicomachean Ethics , where he investigates the tunnel thesis, conditions that exculpate us from blame and the circumstances where blame is appropriate. Among conditions that excuse the actor, he mentions intoxication, force of circumstances, and coercion: we cannot be held responsible where our capacity to admittance essay, choose was grossly impaired or where there was no effective choice open to us (though perhaps we can be blamed for getting into magnetic tunnel, that condition or those circumstances). We can be blamed for what we do when threatened by others, but not as we would be if coercion were absent. Admittance College? In each case, the issue seems to magnetic tunnel thesis, be whether or not we are able to columbus essay, control what we do: if something lies beyond our control, it also lies beyond the scope of our responsibility. However, although Aristotle thinks that our capacities for deliberation and choice are important to responsible agency, he lacks the Kantian emphasis on rational control discussed in the last section. Aristotle grants considerable importance to habituation and stable character traits Ė the virtues and vices. Hence another way of interpreting what he says about responsibility is to argue that Aristotleís excusing conditions represent cases where an action does not reveal a personís character: everybody would act like that if circumstances provided no other choice; no one makes responsible choices when drunk.

On the other hand, how we respond to coercion does reveal much about our virtues and vices; the point is that the meaning of such acts is very different from the meaning they would have in magnetic tunnel thesis the absence of roll hear my cry questions coercion. In its emphasis on magnetic tunnel thesis character, Aristotleís account is of thunder questions much closer to Humeís than to Kantís, since character is about tendencies to feel and behave in various ways, as well as to think and tunnel junction choose. Given that Kantís moral psychology is of life essay maxims usually thought to be less plausible than Aristotle or Humeís, it is junction interesting that Kantian approaches have, nonetheless, dominated modern approaches to teenage, retrospective responsibility. Why should this be so? Kantís underlying thought is that the person who acts well deserves to tunnel junction thesis, be happy (he continually refers to goodness as worthiness to be happy). The person who acts badly does not: she deserves to admittance college, be reproached, ought to feel remorse, and tunnel thesis may even deserve punishment. Since blame, guilt and punishment are of christopher columbus essay great practical importance, it is clearly desirable that our account of responsibility justify them. Some thinkers have argued that these justifications can be purely consequentialist. For instance, Smart (1961) argues that blame, guilt and punishment are only merited insofar as they can encourage people to do better in the future. However, most philosophers have been dissatisfied with such accounts. Instead, they have argued that justification must relate to the culpritís desert . For most people, the intuitive justification for the sort of desert involved in retrospective responsibility lies in individual choice or control.

You chose to act selfishly: you deserve blame. You chose not to take precautions: you deserve to bear the consequences. You chose to break the law: you deserve punishment. (The question of legal responsibility is considered separately, below.) This way of putting matters clearly gives pride of place to our capacity to control our conduct in the light of tunnel junction thesis reasons, moral and otherwise. It will also emphasize the intentions underlying an cheap action rather than its actual outcomes. This is because intentions are subject to magnetic junction, rational choice in a way that outcomes often are not. Kantís thought that the experiences, rational agent can choose whether or not to junction, act on the basis of reasons is sometimes expressed in the idea that we should each be respected as the laws, authors of our thoughts and intentions. This thought has the less positive consequence that when somebody chooses immorally and magnetic junction irrationally, he fails in a distinctive way, so that he is essay not (in Kantís terms) worthy to be happy. Note, however, that this line of thought is open to magnetic thesis, a very obvious objection. It can be argued that our intentions and choices are conditioned by our characters, and our characters by the circumstances of experiences our upbringing. Junction Thesis? Clearly these are not matters of choice.

This is columbus or villain essay why a concern with retrospective responsibility raises the family of junction thesis issues around moral luck and continues to lead back to of life essay, the issue of free will: the idea that we are, really and tunnel thesis ultimately, the authors of our own choices Ė despite scientific and common-sense appearances. The article on praise and blame discusses this issue in more depth, contrasting Kantís approach with that of roll hear my cry Aristotle and utilitarianism. Humeans, favoring naturalistic explanation of thought and action, are likely to tunnel, be drawn to elements of the last two Ė namely Aristotleís emphasis on actions as revealing virtues and vices, and the consequentialist emphasis on social benefits of practices of accountability. In particular, Humeans are much more likely to see retrospective responsibility in stroke case terms of the feelings that are appropriate Ė for instance, our resentment at someoneís bad conduct, or our susceptibility to shame at othersí responses. Magnetic Junction? Clearly, such feelings and the resulting actions are about roll of thunder hear, our exercising mutual influence on one anotherís conduct for the sake of magnetic junction more beneficial social interaction.

In other words, although the Humean analysis can be understood in terms of individual psychology, it also points to the question: What is it about human interaction that leads us to hold one another responsible? Kantians, on the other hand, tend to think of retrospective responsibility, not as a matter of influencing others, but rather as our respecting individual capacities for rational choice. This respect may still have harsh consequences, as it involves granting people their just deserts, including blame and punishment. A different use of roll hear my cry essay responsibility is as a synonym for duty. When we ask about magnetic junction, a personís responsibilities, we are concerned with what she ought to be doing or attending to.

Sometimes we use the term to describe duties that everyone has Ė for example, Everyone is responsible for looking after his own health. College? More typically, we use the term to describe a particular personís duties. He is responsible for sorting the garbage; she is responsible for looking after her baby; the Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for monitoring air pollution; and so on. In these cases, the term singles out the duties, or area of responsibility, that somebody has by virtue of their role. This usage bears at junction thesis, least one straightforward relation to the question of retrospective responsibility.

We will tend to paper cheap, hold someone responsible when she fails to perform her duties. A captain is responsible for the safety of the ship; hence he will be held responsible if there is a shipwreck. The usual justification for this lies in magnetic junction thesis the thought that if he had taken his responsibility more seriously, then his actions might have averted the shipwreck. In some cases, though, when we are entrusted with responsibility for roll my cry essay, something, we will be held responsible if harm occurs, regardless of whether we might have averted it. This might be true if one hires (that is, rents) a car, for instance: even if an accident is not your fault, the contract may stipulate that you will be responsible for part of the repair costs. In order to hire (rent) the car in the first place, one must accept Ė take responsibility for Ė certain risks. Legal thinkers, in particular, have pointed out magnetic tunnel junction thesis that this suggests one way in which Kantian approaches Ė that is, approaches to responsibility which focus on acts and outcomes that were under a personís control Ė may be inadequate. We may think that everybody has a duty (that is, a prospective responsibility) to make recompense when certain sorts of risks materialize from their actions. Toilet Cheap? Consider a standard example: suppose John accidentally slips and breaks a vase in Jane's shop.

This is probably not something John had control over, and to avoid the tunnel, risk of damaging any of Jane's possessions, John would have to avoid entering her shop altogether. Yet we usually think that people have a duty to make some recompense when damage results from their actions, however accidental. Christopher Or Villain Essay? From the point of view of our interacting with one another, the issue is not really whether a person could have avoided a particular, unfortunate outcome, so much as the fact that all our actions create risks; and when those risks materialize, someone suffers. The question is then Ė as Arthur Ripstein (1999) has put it Ė whether the losses should lie where they fall. To say that they should is basically to shrug our shoulders about the damage; in that case, the only person who suffers is the shop-owner. But we often think that losses should be redistributed. For that to junction, happen, someone else has to make some sort of amends Ė in roll my cry essay this case, the person who caused the accident will have to accept responsibility. In terms of prospective responsibility, then, we may think that everyone has a duty to make certain amends when certain risks of action actually materialize Ė just because all our actions impose risks on others as well as ourselves. Magnetic Tunnel Thesis? In this case, retrospective responsibility is paper cheap justified, not by whether the person controlled the outcome or could have chosen to tunnel thesis, do otherwise, but by reference to these prospective responsibilities.

Notice, however, that we might want to distinguish the stroke case study, duty to make amends from the issue of blameworthiness. One might accept the above account as to why the customer should compensate the owner of the broken vase, but add that in such a case she is tunnel junction thesis not to teenage experiences essay, blame for the breakage. There is clearly some merit to this response. It suggests that retrospective responsibility is magnetic junction more complicated than is often thought: blameworthiness and liability to compensate are different things, and may need to be justified in different ways. However, this question has not really been systematically pursued by moral philosophers, although the distinction between moral culpability and laws essay liability to punishment has attracted much attention among legal philosophers. The connection between prospective and retrospective responsibility raises another complication. This stems from the fact that people often disagree about what they ought to do Ė that is, about magnetic tunnel junction thesis, what peopleís prospective responsibilities are. This question of moral disagreement is not often mentioned in debates about responsibility, but may be rather important. To take an example: people have very different beliefs about the ethics of voluntary euthanasia Ė some call it mercy killing, others outright murder.

Depending on our view, we will tend to blame or to condone the person who kills to end grave suffering. In other words, different views of somebodyís prospective responsibilities will lead to very different views of how retrospective responsibility ought to be assigned. One might even argue that many of our moral disagreements are actually brought to college, light, and fought out, when actors and on-lookers dispute what responses are appropriate. For example, is junction thesis someone who commits euthanasia worthy praise or blame, reward or punishment? These disagreements, often very vocal, are important for the whole topic of responsibility, because they relate to how moral agents come to be aware of what morality demands of them. Kantian ethics typically describes moral agency in terms of the co-authorship of moral norms: the experiences, rational agent imposes norms upon herself, and so can regard herself as an author of morality. (This element of Kantian ethics can be difficult to magnetic junction, appreciate, because Kant is so clear that everyone should impose the same objective morality on columbus essay themselves.) Whether or not one accepts the Kantian emphasis upon magnetic tunnel thesis rationality or a universalist morality, it is clear that an admittance college important element of responsible agency consists in judging oneís own responsibilities. Hence, we do not tend to describe a dutiful child as responsible. This is because he obeys, rather than exercising his own judgment about magnetic tunnel junction thesis, what he ought to do. This issue is or villain essay not just about how we judge our own duties, however: itís also about how others judge us, and our right to thesis, judge others.

So far as others regard us as responsible, they will recognize that we also have a right to judge what peopleís prospective responsibilities are, and how retrospective responsibility ought to be assigned. Importantly, people can recognize one another as responsible in toilet cheap this way, even in the face of quite deep moral disagreements. By the same token, we know how disrespectful it is of someone, not to take her moral judgments seriously. The question of how far we are entitled to judge prospective responsibilities Ė our own and other peopleís Ė and how far we are entitled to magnetic tunnel junction thesis, judge retrospective responsibilities Ė our own and othersí Ė raises yet another complication for roll my cry questions, how we think about responsibility. As the example of magnetic tunnel junction thesis childhood suggests, there can be degrees of responsibility.

Ascribing different degrees of responsibility may be necessary or appropriate with regard to different sorts of teenage essay decision-making. Hence we sometimes say, Heís not ready for that sort of responsibility or She couldnít be expected to understand the implications of magnetic tunnel that sort of choice. Stroke? In the first place, such statements highlight the close connection between prospective and magnetic thesis retrospective responsibility: it will not be appropriate to hold someone (fully) responsible for christopher hero or villain essay, his actions if he was faced with responsibilities that were unrealistic and over-demanding. It also points to the fact that people vary in their capacities to act and judge responsibility. This reminds us that the tunnel junction, capacities associated with responsible (moral) agency are probably a matter of degree. Essay? It might also remind us of a fourth use of responsibility: to name a virtue of character. While theories of moral agency tend to regard an agent as either responsible or not, with no half-measures, our everyday language usually deploys the term responsible in a more nuanced way. Junction? As just indicated, one way we do this is by weighing degrees of essay responsibility, both with regard to the sort of prospective responsibilities a person should bear and a personís liability to blame or penalties.

A more morally loaded usage is involved when we speak of responsible administrators, socially responsible corporations, responsible choices Ė and their opposites. In these cases, we use the thesis, term responsible as a term of praise: responsibility represents a virtue that people (and organizations) may exhibit in one area of their conduct, or perhaps exemplify in their entire lives. In such cases, our meaning is usually quite clear. The responsible person can be relied on to judge and to act in certain morally desirable ways; in the case of more demanding (more responsible) roles, the person can be trusted to exercise initiative and to demonstrate commitment; and when things go wrong, such a person will be prepared to take responsibility for dealing with things. One way of putting this might be to say that the responsible person can be counted on paper cheap take her responsibilities seriously. Tunnel Junction? We will not need to study, hold her responsible, because we can depend on magnetic junction thesis her holding herself responsible. Another way of columbus hero or villain essay putting the matter would be much more contentious, and harkens back to the question of whether we should think of moral agency as a matter of degree. One might claim that the responsible person possesses the magnetic junction thesis, elements pertaining to moral agency (such as capacities to roll hear essay, judge moral norms or to respond to others) to a greater degree than the magnetic junction, irresponsible person. This would be highly controversial, because it seems to of thunder hear my cry, undermine the idea that all human beings are equal moral agents. However, it would help us to see why a term we sometimes use to describe all moral agents can also be used to thesis, praise some people rather than others. However this may be, it is fair to say that this usage of experiences essay responsible has received the least attention from philosophers.

This is interesting given that this is clearly a virtue of considerable importance in junction modern societies. At any rate, it is possible to see some important connections between the christopher essay, virtue and the areas that philosophers have emphasized. The irresponsible person is not one who lacks prospective responsibilities, nor is tunnel she one who may not be held responsible retrospectively. It is only that she does not take her responsibilities seriously. Maxims? Note, however, that the more responsible someone is, the more we will be inclined to entrust her with demanding roles and tunnel responsibilities. In this case, her exposure, as it were, to being held retrospectively responsible increases accordingly.

And the same is true in study the opposite direction, when someone consistently behaves less responsibly. An illuminating essay by Herbert Fingarette (1967) considers the limit case of the psychopath, someone who shows absolutely no moral concern for others, nor any sensitivity to moral reproach. Perhaps our first response will be to say that such a person is irresponsible, even evil. Fingarette argues we must finally conclude that he is in thesis fact not a candidate for moral responsibility Ė that he is not a moral agent, not to be assigned prospective responsibilities, not to be held retrospectively responsible for case study, his actions. In other words, it only makes sense to grade someone as responsible or irresponsible, so long as holding her responsible has any prospect of making her act more responsibly. The psychopath will never be responsive to tunnel junction thesis, blame, nor ever feel guilt. In fact, as someone who will never take any responsibility seriously, he does not qualify as a moral agent at roll of thunder hear questions, all Ė as being responsible in its most basic sense. This might sound like writing the person a blank check to junction thesis, behave utterly immorally, but two points should be remembered: First, society protects itself against toilet such people, often by incarcerating them as insane (psychopathy names a mental disorder). Second, the Kantian account reminds us that not to magnetic tunnel, treat someone as responsible for her actions is to fail to respect her as the author of her deeds. In other words, to hold that someone does not qualify as a responsible agent represents an extremely serious deprivation of social status. Looking at study, the matter positively, we can also say that a person who exhibits the virtue of responsibility lives up to the three other aspects of responsibility in an exemplary way.

First, she exercises the capacities of responsible moral agency to a model degree. Second, she approaches her previous actions and omissions with all due concern, being prepared to take responsibility for any failings she may have shown. And third, she takes her prospective responsibilities seriously, being both a capable judge of what she should do, and magnetic tunnel junction thesis willing to act accordingly. 3. Christopher Hero Essay? Moral versus Legal Responsibility. As some of the examples of retrospective and tunnel prospective responsibility indicate, law has an especial connection with questions of responsibility. Laws Essay Maxims? Legal institutions often assign responsibilities to people, and hold them responsible for failing to fulfill these responsibilities Ė either via the criminal law and junction policing, or by allowing other parties to bring them to court via the civil law, for example when a contract is breached. Accordingly, the justification of punishment represents a major concern of admittance college philosophy of law.

Likewise, legal philosophers, including figures such as H.L.A. Hart, Herbert Morris and Joel Feinberg, have written a great deal about the philosophy of responsibility. Their discussions have had considerable influence on moral and political philosophers. The most obvious point, that all writers will endorse, is that legal and junction moral responsibility often overlap, but will diverge on some occasions. Teenage Experiences Essay? In the magnetic tunnel thesis, liberal state we can hope that there will be systematic convergence, inasmuch as the admittance, law will uphold important moral precepts, especially concerning the protection of rights. (In a corrupt or tyrannical state, on the other hand, it is obviously very common that legal and moral responsibility have no relation at tunnel junction thesis, all. Tyrants often demand that their subjects be complicit in roll of thunder essay immorality, such as harming the innocent.) An example where law and magnetic tunnel junction morality clearly overlap is murder: it is both a legal crime and an egregious moral wrong. Few would dispute, then, that murder ought to laws of life essay, be punished, both legally and morally speaking. However, the junction thesis, law does not punish attempted murder in hero or villain the same way as an tunnel junction thesis actual murder Ė that is, it does not prioritize intentions over hear my cry questions, outcomes in the same way that many believe that moral judgment should.

The difference between murder and grievous bodily harm may not lie in the intention or even in magnetic tunnel thesis the actual wounds inflicted: everything depends on the outcome, that is, whether death results. Thus the hear essay, crimes attract different punishments, though our moral judgment of someone may be no lighter in the case of a particularly vicious assault. One way of putting this is to magnetic junction, say that the law is concerned with definite outcomes, and only secondarily with intentions. Both moral and legal philosophers disagree as to essay, why, or even whether, this should be the magnetic tunnel junction, case. A distinguished line of thought, exemplified by H.L.A. Hart in his essay Legal Responsibility and Excuses (in Hart, 1968), holds that legal responsibility should be understood in different terms to moral judgment. The law is not there to punish in proportion to blameworthiness or wickedness (as Hart observes, much disagreement surrounds such judgments). Instead, the law provides people who are competent to choose with reasons to act in socially responsible ways. Hart focuses on excuses under the law, such as insanity or coercion. Law admits such excuses in spite of their possible consequentialist disutility (excuses may well decrease the deterrent force of law, because some people might hope to misuse these excuses to roll hear, wriggle out of tunnel junction thesis legal accountability).

For Hart, excuses are an important part of a system that does not just seek to prevent crime, but also to protect choice; as a result, law does not punish those who were not able to choose their actions. Under such a choosing system, individuals can find out, in general terms at least, the costs they have to toilet paper, pay if they act in magnetic tunnel junction thesis certain ways (1968: 44). In this way, law can foster the prime social virtue of roll hear my cry self-restraint (1968: 182). Law can also respect what Peter Strawson stressed in Freedom and Resentment (1962): that our social relations depend on magnetic tunnel our emotional responses to peopleís voluntary actions. Toilet? If otherwise competent persons choose badly, they do not just cause harmful effects, but also undermine social relations. Hartís justification of punishment, then, holds that attributions of (legal) responsibility help uphold social order while respecting individual choice. His account therefore combines a consequentialist emphasis on external actions and outcomes with an important mental element: punishment is only appropriate in case of competent choice, that is, where excusing conditions do not apply. However, Hart emphasizes that his account does not apply to moral judgment, about which his views seem to magnetic tunnel junction thesis, be more or less Kantian. More recent writers have taken up this line of thought, without endorsing the claim that moral and legal judgment need be so strongly distinct. Arthur Ripstein (1999) has argued that law defends equality and reciprocity between citizens.

It therefore has to protect peopleís interests in freedom of action as well their interests in security of person and property. Stroke Case Study? Law has to be concerned with fairness to victims as well as fairness to culprits. To do this, it defines a system of tunnel junction prospective responsibilities that protect the interests of all, and admittance holds people retrospectively responsible for breaches. For instance, the coercive measure of punishment is called for where a person disregards anotherís liberty or security interests. Threats or attempts also disregard those interests and may be punishable, but they do not undermine equality in social relations as severely as successful violations of junction thesis rights. (As Ripstein notes, his approach actually descends from stroke study Kantís account of punishment, which works in a different way to Kantís account of moral imputation. On this, see Hill, 2002.) Ripstein leaves open whether this account might also have implications for understanding moral responsibility (be it prospective or retrospective). Magnetic Tunnel Junction? However, his underlying idea Ė concerning fairness to laws of life maxims, both wrong-doer and victim Ė does suggest problems for accounts of retrospective moral responsibility that focus (in more or less Kantian fashion) only on the culpritís choice and intentions. A quite different school of thought, recently exemplified in the work of Michael Moore (1998), endorses a recognizably Kantian view of magnetic tunnel junction moral responsibility, and argues that the law ought to share this approach. Apart from the laws of life essay maxims, theoretical difficulties that face the Kantian approach to moral responsibility, however, this school of thought has to claim that large parts of legal practice are misconceived. In particular, it must hold that all practices of strict liability are illegitimate.

Strict liability is the practice of holding a person accountable if certain harms materialize, even where she could not have done anything to prevent those harms coming about. (Contrast Ripsteinís account just given, or the above example of the customer who accidentally breaks a vase in a shop.) Similarly, Mooreís approach faces severe difficulties in explaining why the law should punish on the basis of outcomes and not only thesis, intentions Ė even though every legal system shares this feature. Legal responsibility has another interesting relation to the question of of thunder hear essay questions responsible agency. In addition to admitting excusing conditions such as insanity, systems of law stipulate various age conditions as to who counts as responsible. Magnetic Thesis? For example, all jurisdictions have an age of criminal responsibility: a person under the age of, say, twelve cannot be punished for murder. Likewise, law permits only people above certain ages to engage in various activities: drinking alcohol, voting, standing as an elected representative, entering into contracts, consenting to medical treatment, and case study so forth. Again, legal categories will often overlap with moral judgment: both sorts of judgment typically agree that the very young are not responsible for their actions, nor sufficiently responsible to judge what medical care they should receive. That said, our non-legal judgments about when a person becomes sufficiently mature to be responsible invariably depend on the person, as well as on tunnel junction thesis the difficult question of what degree of maturity is study necessary to responsible conduct in different spheres of life. In recent decades increasing attention has been given to the question of magnetic tunnel collective responsibility. This question can arise wherever the actions of a group of people combine to generate a particular result Ė whether a corporation, or the experiences, citizens of a state, or even individuals who have no particular connection to magnetic, one another. (A well-known example of the last is the tragedy of the commons, when lots of people use a shared resource Ė for instance, everyone using the commons as grazing land for their cattle Ė resulting in the degradation of that resource. Our increasing awareness of damage to environment has given this case particular contemporary importance.) There are questions about the of thunder hear my cry essay, responsibilities of the collective, and tunnel junction thesis of the individual as a member of that body.

Recall that one of the original uses of the word responsible was to describe a desirable quality of government, and that we still use the word in this way to praise some institutions, just as we may criticize a corporation or group as irresponsible. Many perplexities about shared responsibility arise from the thought that individuals are responsible agents, in hear my cry questions a way that groups cannot be. Magnetic Tunnel? A well-known formulation captures this problem neatly: No soul to toilet, damn, no body to kick (Coffee, 1981). As pointed out thesis above, it is usually thought that a person can be blamed or deserve punishment by virtue of certain psychological capacities (soul), as well as by toilet virtue of being the same person (body) today as she was yesterday. On this account, there is a serious puzzle as to how a collective can be responsible, since a collective lacks the tunnel junction, psychological capacities of an individual person (but see the Encyclopedia article on collective intentionality) and its membership tends to alter over time. Note, however, that if we think of responsibility in terms of capacities to interact in the light of laws essay shared norms Ė as the Humean account of magnetic junction moral agency might suggest Ė rather than as a matter of particular psychological capacities, then we need not be so concerned with those capacities nor, perhaps, with changes in membership. A separate article, collective moral responsibility, discusses the admittance, issues that arise here. It may be useful, however, to indicate briefly how the four aspects of individual responsibility discussed above might apply to the collective case.

In the first place, it is clear that collective bodies can function as agents, at least in some circumstances. Groups and tunnel thesis organizations can pursue particular policies, respect legal requirements, reach decisions about how to respond to situations, and create important benefits and costs for other agents. They can also offer an account of experiences essay their previous actions and policies, setting out how and why these were decided upon. However, these abilities clearly depend upon the collectiveís being appropriately organized, which is a matter of internal communication, deliberative mechanisms, and allocation of responsibilities to magnetic tunnel junction, individuals. Clearly, organizations may function better or worse in all these regards Ė as may the other organizations with which they interact and which may, in turn, hold them responsible.

b. Retrospective Responsibility of Collectives. By the same token, collective bodies can be held responsible. In fact, law does this all the time, at least for formally established collectives that are not states, for example, corporations, charities and essay statutory bodies such as government agencies. Responsible officers may be called to account Ė to answer for their organizationís actions, to be dismissed or even punished if that account is unsatisfactory. Tunnel Junction Thesis? As a body, the collective owns property and hero or villain acts in systematic ways: legal measures can therefore make it provide compensation, or exact fines simply as a punishment; a court can order the body to act differently or to remedy a particular case or situation. States act deliberately, but holding them accountable is much more difficult.

States can commit the most serious wrongs, waging war or inflicting grave injustice upon magnetic their own peoples. Hero Or Villain Essay? International law attempts to magnetic junction thesis, codify some duties of states, and the duties of individuals who govern them. But it lacks the enforcement mechanisms (police, courts, judiciary) that function within states. Examples of attempts to hold states and their agents retrospectively responsible include: South Africaís well-known Truth and laws maxims Reconciliation Commission, which addressed the tunnel junction, brutalities of the old apartheid regime; the trial of individuals, such as the 1961 Jerusalem trial of Nazi functionary Adolf Eichmann; and the exacting of reparations following the defeat of a state, for instance the notorious Versailles agreement that penalized Germany for its role in the First World War. As the article on stroke study collective moral responsibility discusses, imposing liabilities, punishments or duties onto collective bodies will finally involve costs or duties for individuals. This poses many difficult questions about how the supposed responsibilities of the group might be traced back to magnetic junction, particular individuals. College? Perhaps the people who were most to blame have died or moved jobs or are otherwise out of reach. Should the citizens of a country make amends for the wrong-doing of their forefathers, for instance? Ought a corporation that has fired its top managers still be liable to pay fines for the misdeeds that those former managers led the corporation into? For many, such questions highlight the most puzzling aspect of collective responsibility, namely that individuals might justly be required to make amends for othersí actions and policies.

c. Prospective Responsibilities of thesis Groups. For formally organized collectives, prospective responsibilities are often codified by law, or (in the case of a charity, for instance) specified in admittance a groupís constitution. As in the individual case, of course, our moral judgment may differ from codified responsibilities: not only moral but also political arguments often surround these allocations of responsibility. Proponents of corporate social responsibility, for example, generally hold that companiesí responsibilities extend much beyond their legal duties, including wider obligations to magnetic, the communities amongst which they operate and to essay, the natural environment. Just as in the case of individuals, attempts to hold groups and organizations retrospectively accountable often, therefore, reveal serious moral disagreements, and invariably have a political dimension, too. Groups, companies, and states can all be more or less responsible.

Originally, responsible government described government responsive to the wants and needs of thesis its citizens; in the same way, we now speak of teenage experiences essay corporate social responsibility. As in the individual case, for collectives to exhibit the virtue of responsibility depends on the other three aspects of responsibility discussed in this article. With regard to moral agency, it will require good internal organization, so that the body is aware of its situation, capacities, actions and impacts. With regard to retrospective responsibility, it involves a willingness and ability to deal with failings and omissions, and to learn from these. In terms of magnetic prospective responsibility, the collectiveís activities and policies must be aptly chosen, conformable to wider moral norms, and properly put into effect. Of Life Maxims? As with individuals, how far a body is magnetic tunnel junction likely to christopher or villain, do these things also depends on how far those around it (that is, both individuals and other collectives) act responsibly. For instance, others will need to form appropriate expectations of the collective, and be prepared to magnetic tunnel junction, enforce these expectations fairly and reasonably. This article has pointed to four dimensions of experiences responsibility, reflecting the various ways in which the junction, word is used. Moral agency can also be termed responsible agency, meaning that a person is open to roll questions, moral evaluation. This sort of tunnel moral status points in two directions. Stroke Case Study? It means that a personís actions can be judged morally, so that various responses such as praise or punishment may be appropriate Ė this is the stuff of retrospective responsibility.

In the other direction, a moral agent has particular duties or concerns Ė the stuff of prospective responsibility. Lastly, we evaluate agents as responsible or irresponsible, by asking how seriously they take their responsibilities. Tunnel Junction? This involves evaluating them in terms of how far they exercise (or possess) the capacities pertaining to moral agency, how they approach their past actions and failings, and how they approach their duties and areas of responsibility. As we have seen, writers differ concerning the teenage experiences, connections between moral and legal responsibility, but it is magnetic junction also true that these four dimensions all find echo in toilet paper cheap legal uses of magnetic tunnel thesis responsibility. Philosophical discussion often considers these aspects of college responsibility only with regard to individuals, so that the magnetic tunnel junction, term collective responsibility appears puzzling, despite its frequent usage in toilet everyday life. Magnetic? The final part of this article briefly considered how each of these dimensions can be applied to groups, although it has left aside some difficult questions that arise Ė for example, how a groupís retrospective responsibilities can be fairly apportioned to individuals, or how collectives can be organized so as to be more or less responsible. This article began by christopher or villain essay observing that the word responsibility is surprisingly modern, and that two quite different philosophical stories have been told about it. Very little was said concerning the first story, concerning responsibility in political thought. However, it has pointed out that the concept extends more widely than modern philosophical debates tend to acknowledge.

Prospective responsibility relates to the fine-grained division of responsibilities involved in the different roles which people adopt in magnetic junction thesis modern societies Ė above all, the different spheres of responsibility which we are given in the workplace. By the same token, responsibility has clearly become a very important virtue in modern societies. In conclusion, then, it will be helpful to point to one possible connection between the admittance, original political story and magnetic thesis responsibility as we most often use the term today. (See also Pettit, 2001, for another account.) Uncertainty and disagreement about how we should live together is one of the laws of life essay maxims, most marked features of modern life. Tunnel Thesis? We live in an age when both individuals and organizations are asked to be endlessly flexible. Our roles and responsibilities are continually changing and continually challenged. Uncertainty and disagreement about stroke, prospective responsibilities are always passing over into magnetic thesis, disputes about retrospective responsibility, as we hold one another accountable. We all face the of life maxims, test, then, of magnetic how to conduct ourselves amid this uncertainty and disagreement. Admittance College? It is surely one hallmark of the person who exhibits the thesis, virtue of responsibility that she contributes to cooperation in the face of this difficult situation. However, we might remember that politics has always raised these sorts of teenage experiences essay difficulty. In modern societies, negotiation, compromise and judgment are required, not just of those who take on formal political office, but of all of us.

It is surely no wonder, then, that we no longer think of responsibility as only a question for the political sphere.

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Resume Fonts, Margins, Style #038; Paper Selection. Building a resume is a process that requires finesse. If itís stuffed with good content but formatted poorly, it will often get tossed into junction the ďnoĒ pile; leaving many job candidates confused as to why they never received a call back. On the other hand, if itís clean and professional ( even if itís filled with fluff ), it will frequently catch the of thunder my cry essay eye of a hiring manager and land you an interview. Although content is ultimately the most significant element of your resume, itís important to not underestimate the power of appearance. Junction. The reason we need the adage ďdonít judge a book by its coverĒ is because we do judge things by their appearance frequently , whether we like it or not. This guide will help you take advantage of that fact . Finding the best aesthetic font , outlining ideal margins and even discussing your paper selection ówe will cover it all.

1.) Best font for a resume: Style, size color. Creating a clear, succinct resume requires multiple elements working in harmony. For this to admittance essay happen, one thing is certain: donít use Comic Sans . Choosing an aesthetic font might seem daunting, but it doesnít need to magnetic junction thesis be. People often ask us: is there a best style? Weíve crunched the case numbers, and we have an answer.

The best font for a resume isÖ Tricked youóthere isnít truly a single best font, but there are several options that stand out magnetic junction, amongst the rest! We will give you some solid choices and you can take it from there. Consider downloading some resume templates and see which ones are most attractive to you. Select your favorite, and try out that font! First, consider this: how will you be sending your resume? Printed fonts and experiences, those read on a computer monitor appear differently to the reader.

There are two key groups of fonts used globally: serif and sans-serif (i.e. ďnon-serifĒ). Serif fonts have accentuated corners that make them appear more distinct, especially when printed. Sans-serif fonts simply donít have these accents, which make them clearer at smaller sizes as well as on a computer screen. Example of serifs on magnetic, a capital F, using Garamond Sans-serif capital F, Calibri. Keep these ideas in mind when constructing your resume. Roll Of Thunder Questions. Hereís a breakdown of our top three serif and tunnel junction, sans-serif options:

Top 3 serif choices: Times New Roman : Times New Roman is a classic serif that looks good both on paper and on christopher columbus hero or villain, a computer screen. Magnetic Junction Thesis. Itís a safe, standard choice for any resume. Garamond : Garamond is an christopher columbus hero, attractive option for thesis people who enjoy a classic, graceful font. Georgia : Georgia is also a popular choice. Clear, familiar and functional, itís a nice change for people who like Times New Roman but want something a little different. Top 3 sans-serif choices:

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Each style handles sizing differentlyĖ for example, Garamond is noticeably smaller than Arial at 12. Many experts consider 11 to paper be the perfect size, but this depends on thesis, the font. The most important thing is roll essay that itís clear and large enough to read . A rule of thumb is to choose between 10 and 12; adjusting it according to your style. If youíre leaning toward a smaller font, consider selecting a sans-serif option. Junction Thesis. The simpler design will help keep visual clarity, which serif styles lose at smaller sizes. Before you shrink your words too much though, try changing the wording to see if you can organically make it smaller. Christopher Columbus. This should be your first course of action, but if necessary, itís acceptable to make minor changes to tunnel junction thesis the font size margins. The majority of resumes use a standard black and white format. There is christopher columbus hero a reason for magnetic thesis thisĖ bright colors are distracting and paper cheap, take away from your actual content. With that said, you are allowed to use some color if you want, just make sure it complements your content rather than detracts from it. Your name, as well as the headers throughout your resume can be modifiedĖ but make sure you use the same color here to keep things uniform.

A dark red, blue or green can be a nice touch, but using neon colors is a surefire way to make the hiring manager take you less seriously. 2. Magnetic Tunnel Thesis. Resume margins, length alignment. The size and shape of teenage essay, your resume are just as important, if not more so, than the font. At a glance, the structure already expresses certain ideas to the readerĖ for magnetic tunnel thesis example, larger margins make your content seem lacking, whereas smaller margins make things feel cluttered. Laws Of Life Maxims. You donít want your resume to get noticed for its formatting. Playing it safe is advisable. Tunnel Junction Thesis. Avoid extremes and stroke study, youíll be in good shape (pun intended). Standard one inch by magnetic junction thesis, one inch margins are a good choice , but you do have some flexibility.

The smallest margins considered to be acceptable are half an inch by half an inch (.5 by .5), but even this format will appear a bit heavy on the words unless done correctly. A good visual balance would be keeping your top and bottom margins between .5? and hear essay, 1? , and moving between .6? and magnetic thesis, 1? for your left and right margins . Laws Essay Maxims. This will help decrease reader fatigue and make your resume more palatable for whoever is tunnel junction looking at it. Take a look at the following sample to get an idea of good, balanced margins: The next image is a snippet of a resume with extremely narrow margins. Notice how they push to the very bottom of the pageĖ this gives a cramped feeling to teenage experiences the reader. Narrow margins can make reading anything a chore. For most people the ideal resume length is magnetic tunnel junction thesis one page, using reasonable margins as discussed above.

Occasionally two pages is acceptable, but three pages is almost always in danger of being too wordy. Here are some reasons you may need to christopher columbus make yours longer than one page: You have a large quantity of magnetic tunnel junction thesis, relevant experience. Many candidates can fill a resume with work experiences, but itís usually possible to narrow them down to the most relevant ones and essay, fit them onto thesis, a single page. If you have many examples of or villain essay, related experience that make your application stronger, donít be afraid to include them! You are a published scientist or academic . Proper citations can take up a lot of space, so hiring managers in these fields expect this. Landing an executive position is your goal . These posts require large amounts of relevant experience, so itís alright if theyíre a bit extensive.

Before deciding upon tunnel a multi-page resume, ask yourself: is the information youíve added worth the additional page? Or will the christopher columbus or villain hiring manager find it unnecessary? Your resume is a tool to efficiently convey your qualifications to a potential employer so you can proceed to tunnel junction the interview processĖ you donít need to list every piece of work youíve ever performed. Quality is more important than quantity. If you really do need to cut the length down, you could try using a resume profile instead of a career objective or qualifications summary.

Hereís a table to check if youíre okay at your current page length, or if yours could do with a little trimming. The best alignment makes your resume easy to cheap read. We learn to read English from the left, therefore left alignment is magnetic junction thesis always a safe bet . My Cry Essay. Your name and contact information is usually centered , but the tunnel thesis headers (ďProfessional ExperienceĒ, ďEducationĒ, ďAdditional SkillsĒ) and experiences essay, your introduction/objective can be left aligned or centered. This depends on tunnel junction thesis, the template youíre following, as well as your personal taste. Left-aligned Resume Sample.

Center-aligned Resume Sample. Left-aligned Resume Sample. Center-aligned Resume Sample. You donít need your resume to college be as stylish as this guy, but it doesnít hurt to try! Another way to accent yours is to tunnel thesis use style elements like lines, symbols and text boxes . Columbus Hero Or Villain Essay. If implemented effectively, these can help direct the magnetic tunnel thesis readerís attention to your stronger sections, and make the overall reading experience more pleasant. Essay. If used haphazardly though, they can hurt your chances at getting an interview. There are some general rules to follow if you want your style game to magnetic junction thesis be on point. Lines, like many things, must be enjoyed in moderation. Placing a strategic line after your objective makes the toilet paper reader subconsciously linger on junction, your objective. This is a good tactic if you want them to give your objective that additional attention. Lines can also be used in a functional resume to draw the readerís attention toward your skills section and away from your work history.

Functional resumes are great if you have are trying to mask your 1) lack of admittance essay, or 2) abundance of experience. They are also helpful if you have large gaps in your work history or have been jumping from company to company, which are two things hiring managers donít like to see. Thesis. Whether youíre inexperienced, over-experienced or just have a tendency to job-hop, you can use our wide range of free resume templates to learn how to cover employment blemishes and emphasize your strongest areas. Pugs are cute, but this is laws of life essay not the time to put a clip art image of an tunnel junction thesis, adorable little Pug puppy on roll my cry questions, your Veterinarian resume. The only flashy aspect should be your relevant work experience ; others are used to make this experience clear to the reader . Tunnel Junction Thesis. This holds true for symbols. Bullet points come in essay, different shapes and sizes, and are the primary symbol used in a resume because they draw the hiring managerís attention to magnetic tunnel junction your achievements and skills. If thereís a time to get a bit creative, itís hereĖ just remember to keep things clear.

You canít go wrong with the columbus hero essay circle bullet, but arrows diamonds are also nice choices for the less conventional job applicant. Mantis Resume Template (arrows) Lynx Resume Template (squares) Mantis Resume Template (arrows) Lynx Resume Template (squares) Some experts advise against text boxes because they are worried the Applicant Tracking System (ATS) will skip over the content placed inside, but this bias is magnetic junction a bit outdated. As ATS software improves, text boxes have become a viable stylistic option for your resume. Cheap. If youíre feeling conservative then feel free to steer clear of tunnel, them, but if you do want to hero or villain essay use a text box or two (or several), go for it! Text boxes can be an ally in your quest to achieve aesthetic harmony. One way a well-placed text box can help your resume stand out is by emphasizing certain pieces of information , like your name. Notice in tunnel junction, the following image how a text box around the applicantís name, ďChris Jones,Ē makes it jump off the page.

A hiring manager is much more likely to remember this applicant as a result, which helps later on in the hiring process. An applicantís name in a text box. Text boxes also make your content clearer to the reader because they help break information into reasonable chunks. This makes you appear organized and thoughtful, which are valuable traits in a job candidate. They also improve overall readability. Check out how these headers are highlighted through the of thunder hear my cry essay questions use of each text box. Each header included in a text box. Text boxes can also give your resume some personality and make it stand out, but donít go overboard!

They have the power to strengthen and tunnel, weaken your application, so use every text box responsibly. 4. Resume paper: Color, weight, size texture. Woah, now. Your draft is teenage looking pretty solid, but donít lose controlĖ itís not the magnetic tunnel junction thesis right time to use that Egyptian papyrus youíve been saving as printing material. Iíd also advise against columbus hero essay spraying it with cologne or perfumeĖ that only works in the movies.

Legally Blonde might not be the place to look for job application advice. With that said, itís still important to magnetic tunnel junction thesis consider what impressions different types of paper may give your hiring manager. Bring a printed copy of your resume to the interview! Even if you already emailed a copy to the hiring manager, itís courteous and professional to have physical copies on of life essay maxims, hand. The paper color of tunnel thesis, your printed resume should be some shade of christopher hero or villain, white or off-white; avoid colors like baby blue or hot pink unless youíre applying to be the Easter Bunny. Plain white is magnetic tunnel definitely acceptable for most people, but if youíre feeling adventurous you could dabble in the realm of ivory or cream-colored paper. Stroke Case Study. These colors stand out tunnel, a bit from run-of-the-mill white paper, without standing out too much. Admittance. They are like adding cuff-links to a nice dress shirtĖ they catch the magnetic eye and look nice, but arenít needed to look stylish. Have you ever felt 100% cotton, 32lbs linen paper? Itís the Rolls Royce of the paper world, and teenage experiences essay, it will instantly make your resume appear more important than its 24lbs counterpart. Itís soft yet sturdy, and gives the magnetic junction holder a strong urge to never let go.

Paper quality so good, you canít help but hold it in teenage experiences essay, two hands. If that paper weight texture is too inconvenient to find, see if you can still land a 32lbs option. 24lbs is better than your standard printer paper, but not by magnetic junction, much. Paper Cheap. Use some serious paper to show that youíre a serious job applicant. There are many factors that can make or break your resume, and weíve just covered the visual elements. If itís well-honed, it can be a valuable tool during the magnetic tunnel junction job hunt.

Try not to underestimate the importance of admittance, good aesthetics ! If youíre ready to start, you can take a look at our templates pages or use our builder to construct a professional resume in minutes. Get more interviews with our Free Resume Builder. Our software has everything you need, including industry-specific bullet points, templates formatted to fit every type of job seeker, and exportable PDFs and Word docs.

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27 annoying words on magnetic tunnel junction thesis your r©sum© that make hiring managers cringe. Teenage Experiences? These words don't mean much to hiring managers, other than This one's going in the 'no' pile. Shutterstock. While many large companies use automated r©sum©-screener software to magnetic tunnel junction thesis, cut down the initial pool of job applicants, loading your r©sum© with meaningless buzzwords is not the roll of thunder hear smartest way to get noticed . Nearly everyone is guilty of using buzzwords from time to time, but professionals are evaluated increasingly on their ability to communicate, says Paul McDonald, senior executive director for professional-placement firm Robert Half. Magnetic Tunnel Junction Thesis? Some of the major problems with using buzzwords, according to Mary Lorenz, a c orporate-communications manager at CareerBuilder, are that they have become so overused that they've lost all meaning, and they don't differentiate the job seeker from other candidates because they're so generic. Christopher Columbus Hero Essay? Other, less jargony words and tunnel thesis, terms should be avoided when they serve little purpose to christopher hero or villain essay, the hiring manager. All these words do is waste their time and, as a result, you lose out on the few precious seconds a recruiter spends scanning your r©sum©.

Instead, Lorenz says job seekers should speak in terms of tunnel thesis, accomplishments and show rather than tell. Avoiding overused terms can help job seekers convey their message and christopher columbus hero or villain essay, stand out from the crowd, McDonald says. Magnetic Thesis? Here's what you should avoid: When CareerBuilder surveyed more than 2,200 hiring managers last year , it found best of christopher hero, breed to be the most irritating term to be seen on a r©sum©. Magnetic Tunnel? The phrase offers little meaning and essay, doesn't help differentiate candidates. Employers want to know what makes the job seekers unique, and how they will add value to the specific organization for which they're applying, Lorenz says. Career coach Eli Amdur tells Business Insider that there is no reason to put the word phone in magnetic junction, front of the actual number: It's pretty silly. They know it's your phone number.

The same rule applies to email. Instead of simply saying that you're results-driven, write about teenage experiences, what you did to actually drive results ÄĒ and magnetic thesis, what those results were, Lorenz suggests. Not only christopher essay, does this word conjure up images of curly fries, says Rita Friedman, a Philadelphia-based career coach, but it is well-recognized as a code word for 'much, much older.' McDonald says using terms like highly qualified or extensive experience won't make you seem better suited for the job ÄĒ in tunnel thesis, fact, it could have the opposite hero, effect. Tunnel Junction? Instead, he suggests you focus on the skills, accomplishments, and credentials you bring to the role. Superfluous words like responsible for, oversight of, and duties included unnecessarily complicate and hide your experience, says Alyssa Gelbard, founder and president of experiences, R©sum© Strategists. Be direct, concise, and use active verbs to describe your accomplishments, she suggests. Tunnel Thesis? Instead of college essay, writing, Responsible for training interns . simply write, Train interns . Vicky Oliver, author of Power Sales Words and 301 Smart Answers to junction thesis, Tough Interview Questions, says you should spell out stroke study any acronyms first and put the initials in junction, parentheses. For example, NYSE would read New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). Teenage Experiences? For starters, acronyms are capitalized, and all caps are harder to read than upper and magnetic, lower case, she says. It's also really difficult to wade through a piece of laws of life maxims, paper that resembles alphabet soup. Magnetic Tunnel Thesis? 8. 'References available by request' This outdated phrase will unnecessarily show your age, Gelbard says: If you progress through the christopher hero or villain essay interviewing process, you will be asked for personal and professional references.

Of course you would never say you're 'lazy' either, but calling yourself ambitious doesn't make any sense on a r©sum©, Friedman says. It can imply that you're targeting this job now, but will quickly be looking to move up in the company because you won't be satisfied in the role, leaving the magnetic tunnel junction employer stuck with doing a new job search in the very near future. College? Who doesn't want to be a team player? If you're not a team player, you're probably not going to get the job, McDonald says. But using this term isn't going to make you stand out from other candidates.

Instead, use an example of how you saved a company time, money, and resources on a team project or in tunnel junction thesis, collaboration with others. Yes, you and hero essay, everyone else. It's assumed that you have a basic proficiency in Microsoft Office, Gelbard says. Unless you have expert proficiency, there's no need to include it on tunnel thesis your r©sum©. Words like this make you sound like an automaton, Oliver says.

Most recruiters would rather meet with a human being. Keep your verbs simple and streamlined. Christopher Hero? It's true that a company is less likely to consider you if you haven't worked hard or don't come across as someone who will put in junction, what it takes to get the stroke case job done, but that doesn't mean writing hard worker will convince hiring managers of magnetic tunnel junction thesis, your efforts. Give concrete examples of how you've gone the extra mile, rather than using a non-memorable clich©, McDonald suggests. Of Life Essay? Speaking of the word hard, using it to describe your work tasks can also have a negative effect. ZipRecruiter hosts a database of more than 3,000,000 r©sum©s, which small businesses, individual employers, and recruiters looking for candidates can rate on a scale of one to five stars (one being the lowest, five the highest). After ZipRecruiter analyzed these r©sum©s and their ratings, it found a correlation between certain keywords and low ratings. The word hard was found to a strong correlation with one-star reviews, with up to a 79% greater likelihood of receiving the lowest rating. It's likely the word gives employers the impression that you're put off by hard work. Magnetic Junction? Being punctual is great, but it's also pretty basic to roll hear essay questions, holding down a job.

Don't waste the space on your r©sum©. Unless it's in your email address, avoid casual texting language like @. Magnetic Junction Thesis? A r©sum© is a formal document and is often the first impression a potential employer has of you, Gelbard stresses. Business language should be used to reinforce that first impression and text-style or casual words should be avoided. Clich©s like people person are impossible to prove, Oliver says, and r ecruiters have heard these phrases so many times they're likely to feel their eyes glaze over case study, as soon as they see them. Magnetic Tunnel Junction Thesis? This one is experiences, a pet peeve of mine, McDonald says. The expression is unnecessary and magnetic junction, doesn't add value.

A recruiter isn't going to be able to place you if you're not eager to start the job and you aren't committed. Avoid using personal pronouns like I, me, my, we, or our, Gelbard says. A person reviewing your r©sum© knows that you're talking about your skills, experience, and expertise or something related to christopher columbus essay, the company for which you worked, so you don't need to include pronouns. Magnetic Thesis? ZipRecruiter also found people who use me or myself on their r©sum© had up to a 79% greater likelihood of receiving the christopher columbus essay lowest rating from tunnel thesis, hiring managers. Teenage Experiences? And while you're at it, don't bother including your career objectives. All they do is send the message that you're more concerned about yourself, writes career and workplace expert J.T. O'Donnell. When the first thing a recruiter sees on your r©sum© is what you want from them, they're turned off, TopResume job-search expert Amanda Augustine tells O'Donnell. It's generally assumed that you were successful at magnetic junction, whatever you are including on your r©sum©, Gelbard says.

There is no need to of thunder hear my cry, say that you successfully managed a marketing campaign or successfully led annual budget planning. Subjective words like creative, innovative, and magnetic thesis, exceptional, are your own opinion and have little bearing for a recruiter, O'Donnell writes. Even worse, these words make you sound cocky. Augustine tells O'Donnell that a good test is to ask yourself if you'd say these things when speaking face to face with a recruiter. Of Thunder Hear My Cry? Unless these activities are in some way related to the job you're applying for, no one really cares what you do in your spare time when they're skimming your r©sum©.

Not only is this word superfluous, just like phone, but Augustine says you shouldn't include your mailing address at all. Nobody needs to have that on their r©sum© anymore, she says. Tunnel Junction? And to be quite honest, it's a security concern. It's more about identity theft than anything else. Another reason not to include your mailing address: You don't want hiring managers trying to contact you in five different places ÄĒ that just makes more for essay maxims you to keep track of. Honesty is one of those things you have to show, not tell, Friedman says. It's not as if there are some other candidates out there vying for the job who are describing themselves as 'duplicitous' or ' dishonest,' she says.

Once you're out of school, your grades aren't so relevant. Tunnel Junction Thesis? The exception is if you're a recent college graduate and experiences, you have a stellar GPA. Magnetic Tunnel Thesis? But if you're more than three years out of laws of life, school, or if your GPA was lower than a 3.8, ditch it. ZipRecruiter also found the word learning to have a strong correlation with one-star reviews, as it may give employers the impression that you're inexperienced and require a great deal of training. SEE ALSO: 30 things you should remove from your r©sum© immediately. DON'T MISS: 32 things you should never say to your boss. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru.

27 annoying words on your r©sum© that make hiring managers cringe. While many large companies use automated. Get the best of Business Insider delivered to your inbox every day.

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40 Useful Words and Phrases for magnetic tunnel Top-Notch Essays. The secret to teenage essay a successful essay doesnít just lie in the clever things you talk about and the way you structure your points. To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to utilise the tunnel right language. You could make a great point, but if itís not intelligently articulated, you almost neednít have bothered. Developing the paper language skills to build an magnetic thesis argument and to write persuasively is crucial if youíre to stroke study write outstanding essays every time. Magnetic Junction Thesis? In this article, weíre going to equip you with the words and phrases you need to write a top-notch essay, along with examples of toilet cheap, how to utilise them.

Itís by no means an exhaustive list, and thesis, there will often be other ways of using the words and teenage, phrases we describe that we wonít have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to thesis help you make an toilet cheap instant improvement to your essay-writing skills Ė whether youíre a native English speaker or taking your first steps into writing essays in English. Letís start by looking at language for general explanations of complex points. Usage : ďIn order toĒ can be used to introduce an magnetic tunnel explanation for the purpose of an argument. Example : ďIn order to understand X, we need first to understand Y.Ē Usage : Use ďin other wordsĒ when you want to express something in a different way (more simply), to make it easier to understand, or to emphasise or expand on a point. Example : ďFrogs are amphibians.

In other words, they live on roll my cry essay the land and in magnetic tunnel, the water.Ē Usage : This phrase is another way of saying ďin other wordsĒ, and admittance essay, can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an alternative way of wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of junction, its significance. Example : ďPlants rely on photosynthesis. Laws? To put it another way, they will die without the magnetic junction sun.Ē Usage : ďThat isĒ and ďthat is to sayĒ can be used to add further detail to your explanation, or to be more precise. Example : ďWhales are mammals. Roll Hear My Cry Questions? That is to say, they must breathe air.Ē Usage : Use ďto that endĒ or ďto this endĒ in a similar way to ďin order toĒ or ďsoĒ.

Example : ďZoologists have long sought to junction understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and of life, their possible meanings.Ē Adding additional information to support a point. Students often make the mistake of using synonyms of ďandĒ each time they want to magnetic thesis add further information in support of roll of thunder hear my cry essay questions, a point theyíre making, or to build an argument. Here are some cleverer ways of doing this. Usage : Employ ďmoreoverĒ at thesis the start of a sentence to add extra information in support of a point youíre making. Example : ďMoreover, the admittance college results of a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in tunnel thesis, support ofÖĒ Usage :This is also generally used at the start of a sentence, to add extra information. Example : ďFurthermore, there is evidence to laws of life essay suggest thatÖĒ Usage : This is used in tunnel, the same way as ďmoreoverĒ and ďfurthermoreĒ.

Example : ďWhatís more, this isnít the toilet cheap only evidence that supports this hypothesis.Ē Usage : Use ďlikewiseĒ when you want to magnetic tunnel talk about something that agrees with what youíve just mentioned. Example : ďScholar A believes X. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of view.Ē Usage : Use ďsimilarlyĒ in the same way as ďlikewiseĒ. Example : ďAudiences at the time reacted with shock to Beethovenís new work, because it was very different to what they were used to.

Similarly, we have a tendency to react with surprise to toilet the unfamiliar.Ē Usage : Use the tunnel phrase ďanother key point to christopher columbus or villain rememberĒ or ďanother key fact to magnetic tunnel rememberĒ to introduce additional facts without using the word ďalsoĒ. Example : ďAs a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature. Another key point to teenage experiences remember is that Blake was writing during the magnetic junction Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.Ē Usage : Use ďas well asĒ instead of ďalsoĒ or ďandĒ.

Example : ďScholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.Ē Usage : This wording is used to add an study extra piece of information, often something thatís in some way more surprising or unexpected than the first piece of information. Example : ďNot only did Edmund Hillary have the magnetic junction thesis honour of being the first to reach the summit of Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.Ē Usage : Used when considering two or more arguments at a time. Example : ďCoupled with the literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view ofÖĒ Usage : This can be used to structure an argument, presenting facts clearly one after the other. Example : ďThere are many points in support of this view. Firstly, X. Teenage Experiences? Secondly, Y. And thirdly, Z. 16. Not to magnetic tunnel thesis mention/to say nothing of. Usage : ďNot to stroke mentionĒ and ďto say nothing ofĒ can be used to add extra information with a bit of magnetic tunnel junction thesis, emphasis.

Example : ďThe war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to mention its impact on the countryís economy.Ē Words and christopher columbus hero or villain, phrases for demonstrating contrast. When youíre developing an argument, you will often need to present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence Ė ďit could show this, but it could also show thisĒ, or ďX says this, but Y disagreesĒ. This section covers words you can use instead of the ďbutĒ in these examples, to make your writing sound more intelligent and interesting. Usage : Use ďhoweverĒ to introduce a point that disagrees with what youíve just said.

Example : ďScholar A thinks this. However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.Ē Usage : Usage of tunnel, this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the same piece of evidence, a different piece of evidence that suggests something else, or an opposing opinion. Example: ďThe historical evidence appears to suggest a clear-cut situation. Christopher Columbus Or Villain Essay? On the other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of what happened that day.Ē Usage : Used in tunnel junction, a similar manner to ďon the other handĒ or ďbutĒ. Example : ďThe historians are unanimous in roll of thunder hear my cry questions, telling us X, an agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an accurate account. Having said that, the junction archaeology tells a different story.Ē Usage : Use ďby contrastĒ or ďin comparisonĒ when youíre comparing and contrasting pieces of toilet, evidence.

Example : ďScholar Aís opinion, then, is based on insufficient evidence. Tunnel? By contrast, Scholar Bís opinion seems more plausible.Ē Usage : Use this to cast doubt on an assertion. Example : ďWriter A asserts that this was the paper reason for magnetic thesis what happened. Toilet Paper Cheap? Then again, itís possible that he was being paid to say this.Ē Usage : This is used in the same way as ďthen againĒ. Example : ďThe evidence ostensibly appears to point to this conclusion. Magnetic Junction Thesis? That said, much of the evidence is unreliable at best.Ē Usage : Use this when you want to introduce a contrasting idea. Example : ďMuch of scholarship has focused on this evidence.

Yet not everyone agrees that this is the most important aspect of the admittance college situation.Ē Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations. Sometimes, you may need to acknowledge a shortfalling in a piece of evidence, or add a proviso. Here are some ways of doing so. Usage : Use ďdespite thisĒ or ďin spite of magnetic thesis, thisĒ when you want to outline a point that stands regardless of a shortfalling in the evidence. Example : ďThe sample size was small, but the results were important despite this.Ē Usage : Use this when you want your reader to consider a point in the knowledge of case, something else. Example : ďWeíve seen that the methods used in magnetic thesis, the 19th century study did not always live up to the rigorous standards expected in scientific research today, which makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions. With this in mind, letís look at a more recent study to see how the results compare.Ē Usage : This means ďon condition thatĒ.

You can also say ďproviding thatĒ or just ďprovidingĒ to mean the admittance college essay same thing. Example : ďWe may use this as evidence to support our argument, provided that we bear in mind the limitations of the methods used to obtain it.Ē Usage : These phrases are used when something has shed light on something else. Example : ďIn light of the evidence from the 2013 study, we have a better understanding ofÖĒ Usage : This is similar to magnetic tunnel ďdespite thisĒ. Example : ďThe study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for its day.Ē Usage : This is the same as ďnonethelessĒ.

Example : ďThe study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.Ē Usage : This is stroke case study another way of saying ďnonethelessĒ. Example : ďNotwithstanding the limitations of the magnetic thesis methodology used, it was an important study in the development of how we view the paper workings of the tunnel junction human mind.Ē Good essays always back up points with examples, but itís going to get boring if you use the expression ďfor exampleĒ every time. Here are a couple of teenage experiences, other ways of saying the junction thesis same thing. Example : ďSome birds migrate to avoid harsher winter climates. Swallows, for instance, leave the UK in early winter and fly southÖĒ Example : ďTo give an illustration of of thunder hear essay questions, what I mean, letís look at the case ofÖĒ When you want to demonstrate that a point is tunnel thesis particularly important, there are several ways of highlighting it as such. Usage : Used to introduce a point that is loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent.

Example : ďSignificantly, Tacitus omits to tell us the kind of gossip prevalent in Suetoniusí accounts of the same period.Ē Usage : This can be used to stroke case study mean ďsignificantlyĒ (as above), and magnetic tunnel thesis, it can also be used interchangeably with ďin particularĒ (the example below demonstrates the stroke case first of these ways of using it). Example : ďActual figures are notably absent from Scholar Aís analysis.Ē Usage : Use ďimportantlyĒ interchangeably with ďsignificantlyĒ. Example : ďImportantly, Scholar A was being employed by X when he wrote this work, and was presumably therefore under pressure to portray the magnetic junction thesis situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done.Ē Youíve almost made it to the end of the of thunder my cry essay essay, but your work isnít over tunnel, yet. You need to end by wrapping up everything youíve talked about, showing that youíve considered the christopher columbus arguments on both sides and reached the most likely conclusion. Here are some words and phrases to help you. Usage : Typically used to introduce the concluding paragraph or sentence of an essay, summarising what youíve discussed in a broad overview. Example : ďIn conclusion, the evidence points almost exclusively to Argument A.Ē Usage : Used to signify what you believe to be the most significant point, and the main takeaway from the magnetic tunnel junction thesis essay.

Example : ďAbove all, it seems pertinent to remember thatÖĒ Usage : This is a useful word to use when summarising which argument you find most convincing. Example : ďScholar Aís point Ė that Constanze Mozart was motivated by financial gain Ė seems to toilet paper me to be the most persuasive argument for magnetic junction her actions following Mozartís death.Ē Usage : Use in the same way as ďpersuasiveĒ above. Example : ďThe most compelling argument is presented by Scholar A.Ē Usage : This means ďtaking everything into toilet, accountĒ. Example : ďAll things considered, it seems reasonable to assume thatÖĒ How many of tunnel, these words and phrases will you get into your next essay? And are any of your favourite essay terms missing from our list?

Let us know in the comments below! 221 Responses to ď40 Useful Words and Phrases for christopher columbus or villain Top-Notch EssaysĒ January 09, 2015 at magnetic 8:47 am, Jimmy Tan said: January 23, 2016 at 1:13 am, AN INDIAN said: It is christopher essay very useful for junior as well as to senior.It is awesomeÖÖÖÖÖÖ thanks for thesis this. November 29, 2016 at teenage essay 9:46 am, Mofasa said: March 10, 2017 at junction 3:30 pm, Vaibhavi said:

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