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boullee essay on art ÉTIENNE-LOUIS BOULLÉ, Newton’s Cenotaph, 1780-93. Francisco Martínez Mindeguía, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. Étienne-Louis Boullée, Newton’s Cenotaph, 1780-93. This is the façade of research ethics, Newton's cenotaph, possibly Boullée’s most emblematic project. A project that allows us to understand what he meant by saying that the condition in india architect should aim at the sublime. A concept that we should not relate exclusively to research on accounting ethics, the greatness . Étienne-Louis Boullée (1728-1799) wanted to be a painter and ended up studying architecture at Jacques-François Blondel’s school, owing to college letter outline, parental pressure. At the age of 19 he became a teacher at paper, the École des Ponts et Chausées, at 34 was admitted as a second class member at the Académie d'Architecture and at 52 as a first class member, until the National Convention abolished the Academy in 1793. He was one of the founders of the Institut National des Sciences et des Arts in 1795.

At 52 he began writing Architecture, Essai sur l'art , which he finished between 1790 and 1793, although it was not published until 1953. His book is pimp my essay, illustrated with drawings of projects for public buildings he designed between 1778 and 1788: churches, palaces, courts, assemblies, theaters, libraries, museums, city gates, memorial arches, bridges, lighthouses, cemeteries, cenotaphsAfter his death, his figure was forgotten, hidden behind the published work of Ledoux and Durand; he was despised by the classics, who saw him as an eccentric seeking to overthrow traditions, and by the moderns who made him responsible for the neoclassical deviations towards historicism and plagiarism. His book contains the key to the understanding of architecture drawing, namely Newton's cenotaph. Paper On Accounting Ethics! Blondel said that the building is to find greatness. Writing Scholarship! He particularly said: I tried to paper on accounting, apply all the models the nature and cover, art offered me in order to present the image of the paper great (Architecture. Essays On Music Censorship! Essay on ethics art. GG, pg. 70). Then follows: The picture of the great has such sway over our senses that, even if we consider it horrible, it always provokes us a feeling of admiration. Pimp My Essay! A volcano spewing lava and death is a terribly beautiful image! . Greatness is directly related to beauty and, under different meanings, it is the same whether objects are pleasant or horrifying. Looking grand in anything means revealing superior qualities (Essay, p. 76).

It is an argument that matches the concept of the sublime expounded by Edmund Burke. He also said: the image of paper on accounting ethics, greatness satisfies us in every aspect because our soul, eager to extend its joys, seems ready to embrace the Universe ( Essay . p. 59). Persuasive! Besides from large size, the sublime is achieved by simple forms. He said : Why does the regular shaped figure emphasized at first sight? Because its faces are regular and recurrent and because its form is simple. On Accounting Ethics! We distinguish them thanks to the image of order that their regularity and symmetry suggest. The regularity sets the beauty of form; symmetry, order, and overall beauty; variety produces various levels by means of which they are diversified to us . Proportion is an effect that arises from regularity, symmetry and varietyThe harmony of the bodies is born from the combination and the perfect conjunction of all its proportions (Essay. p. 56). Such assessments are those that justify this building’s form. Basically, the building is cover letter outline, a large sphere that represents both the land and Newton’s discoveries.

Its access can be gained through the base and, despite its size, only a small area of such base can be occupied. Paper! Its surface is skilfully perforated, so that sunlight can enter during the day and create the picture of the night sky. At night a great source of artificial light in the centre portrays the daytime image . Light represents Newton, lighting the knowledge of mankind. From the outside, one can only persuasive, see half the sphere, supported by two cylinders. Around this sphere, along its perimeter, Boullée places rows of trees.

This image recalls Roman tradition in the great mausoleums of on accounting, Augustus and Hadrian, even though they are different building types, since a mausoleum is a grave and a cenotaph is a monument dedicated to the memory of someone, but inside which no body is preserved. Boullée’s idea coincides with the epitaph written by Alexander Pope in 1732: Nature and the laws of nature were hidden at night. God said, “Let Newton be born!” and all was light. Following the text of writing good, his Essai sur l'art : “To produce sad and dark images it is necessary to research paper on accounting, present architecture by means of a completely bare wall, as I intendedin some funerary buildings, showing a picture of pimp my essay, sunken architecture by ethics means of low proportions and buried into the ground; in india short, give shape, by means of light absorbing materials, to paper ethics, the dark image of an architecture defined by the shadow effect. Our Nation India! This type of shadow-in tegrated architecture is an artistic discovery that belongs to me . (Essay , p.71) Boullée and the architecture of shadows . For Boullée, however, this shadow is inseparable from light. In other words, it is a shadow the paper ethics purpose of which is the sublime perception of college cover letter, light. It is not for a light that shines, but for one that could dazzle, overtake and paralyze.

And he applies this concept in public places: museums, libraries, theaters, churches, palaces. One of such buildings is the basilica. Boullée describes it as the basilica or metropolitan church of Corpus Christi Day, as he says : a house of holiness inhabited by the most worthy ministers of religion. The scenic effect is obvious in the interior perspective drawing: the light on the altar, around the cross, the priest in ecstasy, the faithful ascending the stairs and research, kneeling in the contemplation of the miracle of the Eucharist. Boullée describes it as the basilica or metropolitan church of Corpus Christi Day, as he says : a house of holiness inhabited by pimp my essay the worthiest ministers of religion. The scenic effect is paper, obvious in the interior perspective drawing: the light at the altar, around the need help scholarship cross, the priest in ecstasy, the faithful ascending the stairs and kneeling in contemplation of the miracle of the Eucharist.

Some drawings show a sublime experience. As he says, the objective is to arouse in research us a deep worship: this is the goal of religious ceremonies. It is therefore necessary to use all appropriate means to give a character of grandeur and majesty (Essay, p. 62) . On Music! This place . would also make our soul experience a feeling of joy and would be our truly earthly paradise (Essay, p. Research Paper! 64) . . here's what would make this event not only something august/magnificent and exciting, but also truly celestial (Essay, p.64) Boullée begins his book by asking “what is architecture?” and denies that it is the art of building , to quote Vitruvius. Architecture is a product of the mind, the pimp my essay fruit of spiritual and intellectual activity and paper, precedes construction. India! He clarifies that the research on accounting art of architecture is different from the construction technique. Art is generated by a creative inspiration, while technique is only a mechanical process. He thus confronts the vitruvian approach. But Boullée goes farther: the first issue in architecture is neither technical nor aesthetic, but philosophical and ethical.

Origin of the images: All the images are from Étienne-Louis Boullée, Arquitectura, ensayo sobre el arte , Barcelona, Gustavo Gili, 1985. - Étienne-Louis Boullée, Architecture, Essai sur l'art , 1793. The quoted translations correspond to the Gustavo Gili Spanish Editing. - Emil Kaufmann, Étienne-Louis Boullée, The Art Bulletin , vol. 21, nº 3, 1939, pp. Writing Good! 213-227. - Emil Kaufmann, Tres arquitectos revolucionarios: Boullée, Ledoux y Lequeu , 1952, 1978.

Francisco Martínez Mindeguía is Profesor Agregado at the Superior Technical Architecture School of Vallès (Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura del Vallès), UPC.

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Madjid Zerrouky – Sous le signe du drapeau noir : histoire et presence du jihad en Syrie. Posted on on accounting ethics novembre 14, 2012. « Il n’y a pas d’athees dans les tranchees » – Cummings. (Baatan, Philippines, 1942) Avertissement : des liens contenus dans l’article peuvent renvoyer vers des sites et/ou forums jihadistes ; j’ai choisi de ne pas mettre ceux qui renvoient vers les contenus les plus violents (en gras avec une etoile). I- Intro : Minoritaires, mais de plus en plus bruyants. II – Offensives armees, contre-offensive culturelle. . Pimp My Essay. Une guerre contre les populations sunnites. . Research. Une insurrection sunnite, et des combats qui renforcent la religiosite et ses symboles. . Pimp My Essay. La question des financements exterieurs. III – Un terreau historique – l’islamisme arme en Syrie depuis 1975.

. Paper Ethics. Al-Taliaa al-muqatila (1964-1982), la mere de tous les jihadistes. . Writing Good Legal Essays. Quand Damas frayait avec les jihadistes : le retour du boomerang. – La base de donnees de Sinjar : Al-Qaeda et la Syrie. – De Nahr al-Bared a Damas, l’etrange trajectoire du Fatah al-islam libano-palestinien. – Les amnisties interessees de Bachar al-Assad. IV- Les grands groupes jihadistes aujourd’hui.

. Paper On Accounting. Ahrar al-Sham, la petite armee. . Writing Good Essays. Liwaa al-Umma, la « legion etrangere libyenne » V – Entre deux eaux : des katibas islamistes dans l’Armee syrienne libre. Post-sciptum : Liwaa al-fourqane sur le baril de poudre du Golan. Post-scruptum 2 : Les groupes d’Alep de Jabhat al-Nusra, Ahrar al-Sham et kataeb al-Tawhid annoncent un accord en vue de l’etablissement d’un Etat islamique et rejettent la Coalition nationale syrienne (18/11/2012) « Aidez-nous ou nous nous allierons avec Al-Qaeda. On Accounting Ethics. Nous ne voulons pas d’eux ici, mais si personne ne nous aide, nous nous tournerons vers eux », declarait debut aout Abou Amar, un chef de la brigade islamiste Al-Tawhid, deja peu farouche a l’egard des formations les plus radicales (ce qui, nous le verrons, ne s’est pas arrange depuis), peu apres l’entree de ses forces dans Alep. Le coup de gueule d’un rebelle alors exaspere par l’afflux au compte-gouttes de munitions et d’armes en provenance de l’exterieur ? Ou le simple constat que certains ont l’air mieux servis d’autres ? Deux mois plus tard en tout cas, un rapport confidentiel americain deterre par le New York Times affirme que ce ne sont pas les armes qui manquent ; elles sont bel et bien livrees aux insurges, par l’Arabie Saoudite et, surtout, le Qatar, mais elles atterrissent dans les arsenaux des groupes les moins frequentables… « Les groupes de l’opposition qui recoivent la majorite de l’aide letale sont precisement ceux que nous ne voulons pas voir mettre la main dessus », declare ainsi un officiel anonyme. College Cover Outline. Et de pointer le manque total de transparence autour de ces livraisons d’armes et l’absence de controle sur les groupes qui les recoivent.

La conclusion vire a l’angoisse : la peur que les jihadistes, mieux armes, soient en position de force dans le cas d’un conflit pour le controle du pays apres la chute du regime d’Al-Assad. Les jihadistes purs et durs sont minoritaires, ne representant, selon les estimations les plus communement admises, que 10% des effectifs d’une rebellion armee qui compte entre 40 000 et 70 000 hommes en armes. Paper On Accounting Ethics. Mais on persuasive on music commence a les retrouver sur les lignes de front les plus sensibles du pays. Research. De la frontiere turque,ou les drapeaux noir et blanc du Califat accueillent le visiteur au poste de Bab al-Hawa, « cogere », par la brigade Al-Farouq et les radicaux d’Ahrar al-Sham, a la bataille strategique de Maarat al-Noaman, verrou controlant l’acces a Alep depuis le centre et le sud du pays ( et dont depend a terme le sort de la garnison du regime defendant la grande agglomeration du nord) , ou les combattants d’Ahrar al-Sham, toujours, bien armes, font desormais partie du paysage et du dispositif rebelle – comme a Salaqib, Al-Houla… Dans, et autour d’Alep, c’est Jabhat al-Nusra – une quasi-franchise d’Al-Qaeda dont la marque de fabrique mediatique est l’attentat-suicide a la voiture piegee, qui s’incruste sur le champ de bataille. Writing. Apres ceux de Deiz ez-Zor, du nord de Hama et de la region de Homs, son premier bastion.

Transprovinces aussi, la division Al-Haq, dirigee par un vieux routier de l’islam radical syrien, Abderahmane Suways, issu du Hizb al-Tahrir… On pourrait faire un inventaire a la Prevert de tous les groupes ou sous-groupes en activite sur le sol syrien (nous reviendrons dans le detail sur les principaux) et sur leur capacite deconcertante a s’y mouvoir. Research. Il reste, que, bien que divises en maintes chapelles concurrentes – meme s’il leur arrive de cooperer -, les jihadistes semblent etre entres dans une dynamique ascendante, en tant que force militaire, mais aussi par leur impact culturel vis-a-vis du reste du mouvement rebelle dont de plus en plus de factions adoptent, si ce n’est le discours, du moins les codes. Offensives du regime, contre-offensive culturelle. Nous sommes fin octobre a Homs, le general Issam Zahreddine, bras dessus, bars dessous avec ses sbires de la Garde republicaine, parade dans les rues du quartier de Qarabees et pousse la chansonnette : « On legalise la mort des sunnites » – Un exemple derisoire, s’il en faut, des moeurs de la tres « nationale » Armee arabe syrienne et du soi-disant regime laique d’Al-Assad. Exemple derisoire mais effet miroir ; si les images de jihadistes circulent a foison, celles, non officielles, des troupes du regime, moins. Need Writing Essay. Sauf, qu’on ne peut bien voir les premieres en oubliant les secondes, qui les ont precedes dans le film des abimes syriennes. Flashback, printemps 2011. Paper On Accounting Ethics. En ces temps-la, dans le sillage de la province de Deraa, des dizaines de milliers de manifestants bravaient les balles aux quatre coins du pays ; des Kurdes manifestaient en solidarite avec Hama, des Druzes organisaient des sit-in a Sweidiya pour que cesse la repression a Homs ; on of women in india essay defilait a Tartous, en pays alaouite, au nom des libertes publiques.

Il etait question d’un pays uni (« Wahed, wahed, wahed, el chaab al-souri wahed » « un, un, un, le peuple syrien est un », scandait-on dans les rues), des revendications « pas claires » comme dit le Front al-Nusra aujourd’hui…) la clique de Bachar al-Assad etait denommee « nidham » – regime – et non « taghiya », apostats, comme on research paper on accounting ethics entend aujourd’hui; de drapeaux, il y avait l’officiel d’alors, puis, sans doute par prisme libyen, l’ancien embleme de la Syrie pre-baasiste fut adopte, brandi aux cotes de ceux de l’Egypte, Tunisie, Turquie. Condition Essay. Mais pas, ou peu, de traces des emblemes blancs ou noirs sigles « Il n’y a de Dieu qu’Allah »… Il y a bien eu un printemps syrien, essentiellement citadin (hormis Deraa), quand il n’y avait pas encore 30 0000 victimes, avant que Bachar al-Assad n’acheve de faire sortir le djin confessionnel de sa theiere et que le pays ne soit dechire par un conflit militaire proteiforme. La revolte syrienne, nee de revendications democratiques et sociopolitiques, s’est ainsi aussi muee en guerre civile, par bien des aspects confessionnelle, en raison du comportement, depuis bientot deux ans, de la dictature assadiste ; mais aussi de l’environnement international, car la guerre civile syrienne est aussi une guerre sous influence. L’ultramajorite des victimes sont tombees dans des regions sunnites : Au 5 novembre 2012, 32 894 personnes avaient trouve la mort dans le pays, dont 28 300 civils. Research On Accounting. Et force de constater que l’on n’est pas egaux devant la mort selon ou l’on habite… et donc, sa confession : la premiere des dynamiques confessionnelles du conflit est celle des enterrements : 6 921 personnes ont par exemple ete tuees dans le gouvernorat de Homs, a majorite sunnite, contre 51 dans celui voisin de Tartous, alaouite ; 1972 personnes ont ete tuees dans le gouvernorat de Damas, 6305 dans celui de la campagne de Damas (Rif Dimashq), 3 053 dans celui de Deraa, le gouvernorat a majorite de druze de Sweida, qui leur est frontalier, n’a connu que 25 victimes. Pimp My Essay. Plus au nord, 4 599 personnes ont ete tuees dans le gouvernorat d’Idlib, 3 800 dans celui d’Alep, 2696 dans celui de Hama, quand celui de Lattaquie (mixte alaouite, chretien et sunnite) qui les borde a l’ouest, n’a a deplorer « que » 614 morts. L’insurrection est devenue, de fait, sunnite, et les combats ont renforce la religiosite et ses symboles. Les figures de l’opposition en exil issues de minorites religieuses souvent mise en avant – les chretiens George Sabra (elu president du CNS), Michel Kilo… -, tout comme les forces politiques traditionnelles – dont les directions etaient aussi a l’exterieur – et les figures de la societe civile se sont retrouvees de fait marginalisees par la militarisation de la crise. Research Paper On Accounting Ethics. La majorite des combattants armes sont sunnites, souvent issus des zones rurales, periurbaines ou banlieues des grandes villes – les perdants de la Syrie des Al-Assad – des gouvernorats ou se concentrent les violences. La rebellion qui, au depart, s’etait armee dans une perspective et dans une dynamique d’autodefense face aux forces de securite comprend aujourd’hui plusieurs dizaines de milliers de combattants repartis dans 250 a 350 groupes armes : des katibas , « brigades », qui se sont constituees sur une base essentiellement territoriale et sans base ideologique particuliere ou definie.

Les noyaux jihadistes qui ont essaime, a part, etaient tres minoritaires. Our Nation India Essay. Le vocabulaire employe etait meme, au depart (comme nous le verrons plus bas avec l’exemple des brigades Al-Farouq de Homs), du ressort du registre nationaliste. Research Ethics. Ce n’est qu’a partir de l’hiver 2011 que l’imagerie religieuse, voire islamiste, a commence a gagner en visibilite. Writing Good Essays. Un marqueur identitaire, et donc sectaire, avant d’etre ideologique. Research Ethics. Comme un denominateur commun, culturel et historique des combattants et une source de reconfort spirituel en temps de guerre. Le journaliste libano-americain Nir Hosen, l‘un des premiers a couvrir l’insurrection sur le terrain, avait meme percu, au debut de l’annee, une certaine defiance des militants armes sur le terrain envers les Freres musulmans et les propositions d’aide interessee venant d’autres pays arabes, craignant d’etre manipules, tout en relevant une montee de la pratique religieuse parmi ces hommes. Help Writing Scholarship. Ce qui leur donnait foi, courage et des elements de « discours ». Paper On Accounting. Dans cette region conservatrice, l’irruption de la guerre n’a fait qu’encourager ce refuge dans la religion et ses eventuelles derives. Essay. Et encore plus l’identite de l’agresseur : le regime baasiste, issu de la minorite alaouite (et deja, a ce titre, honni par les sunnites rigoristes), et allie a l’Iran… Un regime qui, pendant des mois, a pu massacrer en toute impunite des civils, et face a une opposition menant, au depart, un combat solitaire et sans armes. Des lors, tout militant extremiste pouvait legitimement esperer n’avoir qu’a se baisser pour ramasser quelques fruits. Research Paper. D’autant que Bachar al-Assad a opportunement lache dans la nature les plus dangereux d’entre eux dans le cadre d’amnisties et d’ouverture politique (sic) – et surtout dans le souci de jouer la carte islamiste et d’effrayer l’Occident – en deux temps, au printemps 2011, avec notamment Abderahmane Suways, qui, comme on persuasive on music l’a vu plus haut ne s’est pas contente de rentrer chez lui pour y cultiver son potager (aux dernieres nouvelles, il fait le coup de feu a Homs) et en fevrier 2012 en liberant des dizaines de jihadistes, dont Abu Mussaab al-Suri, le cerveau suppose des attentats de Londres en 2005. On Accounting Ethics. (lire chapitre III).

La question des financements exterieurs : Hormis les Etats-Unis et la France, qui, officiellement, se contentait encore mi-novembre d’apporter une aide financiere aux structures civiles des zones liberees dans l’attente d’une levee de l’embargo sur les armes en faveur de la Coalition nationale syrienne, les pays qui offrent un soutien logistique, financier et militaire aux rebelles syriens sont sunnites : Qatar, Arabie Saoudite et, bien qu’etant un Etat d’une nature differente : la Turquie. Cover Letter. Autres filieres non negligeables d’aide : celles des personnalites et organismes prives des pays du Golfe; ouvertement islamistes ceux-la, et qui, tout naturellement, atterrissent dans des mains… islamistes. On Accounting Ethics. Un homme d’affaires et financier syrien avertissait mi-aout dans The Guardian : « Les commandants des Katibas font allegeance a qui les prend en charge […] les sources de financements de la diaspora syrienne n’etant pas unifiees ; l’argent va de main en main, se perd… il n’y a donc pas d’unification sur le terrain ». Une exception : les Etats, et surtout, l’Arabie Saoudite – dans un affrontement par procuration avec l’Iran – et le Qatar, emirat qui reve d’« incarner ainsi le wahhabisme du XXI e siecle » , et dont l’argent va de facon disproportionnee dans les poches des jihadistes salafistes : « Les systemes les plus organises sont geres par des groupes islamistes extremistes, ils ont le plus d’armes et de munitions, et ils obtiennent leur argent a partir d’une source unique [contrairement aux autres]. Our Nation India. » Julien Barnes-Dacey, un expert au Conseil europeen des relations etrangeres, va plus loin : « Si les Saoudiens et les Qataris perdent la main sur les groupes qu’ils soutiennent, il y aura de grandes chances de retour de flamme. On Accounting Ethics. « « Blowback », le terme est une reference au soutien americain aux groupes jihadistes luttant contre les Sovietiques en Afghanistan… qui plus tard ont permis l’emergence d’Al-Qaeda. Entre les craintes americaines, l’incapacite chronique – dans l’attente de voir concretement ce que donnera la Coalition nationale creee a Doha – de l’opposition politique et armee « moderee » a s’unir et la multiplication des groupes et acteurs locaux sur le terrain, il n’est pas dit que des moyens, meme plus consequents, mis a la disposition des combattants « nationalistes », soient plus efficaces que ceux dont disposent les jihadistes sans une rationalisation des structures de commandement politiques et militaires.Un contraste, quant a la fluidite des financements, que resume bien un combattant d’Ahrar al-Sham de la province d’Idlib dans une interview au Time Magazine : « L’ASL a plus de moyens que nous sur le papier, mais ce qu’ils percoivent reste en Turquie et n’arrive pas aux revolutionnaires ici. Essay. Nous, quand nos soutiens nous envoient 100 livres, on research on accounting a 100 livres. Pimp My Essay. » la montee en puissance de l’ideologie salafiste est evidemment a situer dans ce contexte particulier de guerre civile, mais elle a aussi rencontre terreau historiquement fertile, car l’islamisme politique comme sa composante armee ne sont pas un corps etranger venu se greffer a la revolution syrienne ces dix-huit derniers mois. Ethics. Ils ont une histoire, presque un demi-siecle d’opposition, d’affrontements, d’insurrections avortees et de manipulations du regime syrien.

L’islamisme arme en Syrie depuis 1975 : Al-Taliaa al-mouqatila, la mere de tous les jihadistes. Il y a trente ans, une premiere insurrection islamiste : Longtemps symbole de la barbarie du regime, le martyr de la ville de Hama, en 1982, a marque par un massacre – 10 000 a 20 000 morts – la fin d’un affrontement arme entre les Freres musulmans syriens, debordes par des structures plus radicales, et l’Etat bassiste. Entre-temps, sous le coup de la repression, la confrerie est aussi la proie a de serieuses secousses internes. Our Nation Essay. Qui conduisent en 1972 a un affrontement entre une aile moderee dite de Damas, donc, dirigee par Issam Attar, et celle, plus radicale, dite d’Alep-Hamma, emmenee par Abdelfattah Abu Ghouda, partisane d’un durcissement ideologique accru et d’une confrontation avec le regime. Cette fracture au sein de la confrerie, il y a trente ans, n’a pas fini de modeler le paysage syrien. Research On Accounting Ethics. Le nord et le nord-ouest du pays sont depuis cette epoque des bastions d’un conservatisme sunnite culturellement attise par cette fameuse aile radicale des Freres musulmans, qui a su profiter d’un terreau fertile : region rurales (hormis les agglomerations, a l’epoque non dotees de l’hinterland « rurbain » actuel d’Alep, par exemple, fruit du developpement et de l’exode rural), pauvres, delaissees et meprisees par le regime… Apparait d’ailleurs au grand jour, debut 1975, l’Avant-garde combattante (Al-Taliaa al-mouqatila), des cellules organisees sous la ferule d’un Hamaoui, Marwan Hadid – qui dirigea une tentative de soulevement a Hama, en 1964, qui s’acheva par la destruction de la mosquee centrale et des dizaines de morts – qui va rapidement agreger autour de lui des militants de l’aile de Hama-Alep presses d’en decoudre avec le regime, au point que son organisation sera rapidement consideree comme un courant des Freres musulmans et plus tard, et a tort, leur branche armee – Meme si les deux organisations ont de fait tisser des liens naturels et que le groupe de Hadid a beneficie de l’infrastructure de la confrerie. Al-Hadid, apres la repression de 1964, est persuade que les Freres musulmans ont failli et qu’il faut une avant-garde militante aux avant-postes du combat contre le regime et qu’il a la capacite de servir d’aiguillon et d’entrainer la base de la confrerie avec lui. Need Help Writing Scholarship Essay. Il recontextualise a la sauce wahabite la nature du regime de Hafez al-Assad: le pouvoir de la clique alaouite ne serait qu’un heritier des Qarmates , une secte ismaeliste et ordre militaire millenariste qui avait combattu le califat abasside au Xe siecle et est responsable du sac et du pillage de La Mecque en 930, bref l’alpha et l’omega de la fitna, notion musulmane designant le desaccord et la sedition, et qui met a l’index depuis que l’islam existe en tant qu’entite politique tous les schismes et par, extension, toutes les tendances non-sunnites. Paper Ethics. Bref, cette premiere opposition radicale au regime baasiste pose les facteurs religieux et confessionnel comme ligne de rupture.

Et elle se distingue des le debut par son refus de tout dialogue avec les forces politiques non-islamistes (lire plus bas). En tout etat de cause, la mort, dans les geoles d’Al-Assad, du fondateur d’Al-Taliaa, vers la fin 1975-debut 1976, ne fera que precipiter un passage a l’acte… D’autant que plus que le regime est enlise militairement a cette epoque au Liban, et que les islamistes syriens beneficient d’un soutien des Moukhabarat de l’Irak voisin et ennemi. India. Suivent trois annees d’escarmouches qui vont deboucher une confrontation d’ampleur entre Al-Taliaa, Freres musulmans et le regime a partir de 1979. Le 16 juin, 83 cadets de l’ecole d’artillerie d’Alep sont massacres par Al-Taliaa, une operation dirigee par Adnan Aqla, qui deviendra plus tard le leader du groupe. Research. Un massacre qui ouvre une sequence de deux annees d’attentats et de guerilla urbaine dans les villes du centre et du nord du pays.

A Alep, entre 1979 et 1981, 300 fonctionnaires, militaires, universitaires ou religieux alaouites sont tues par des groupes armes, qui « innovent » en ayant recours a des attentats a la voiture piegee. Le 8 mars 1980, a l’occasion du 17e anniversaire du parti Baas, les grandes villes sont paralysees par une greve generale et des manifestations qui degenerent en affrontements. Letter Outline. Le regime va alors reagir en envoyant des dizaines de milliers de soldats ecraser la revolte dans le nord. Paper Ethics. Avec, a la cle, une serie de massacres : Jisr al-Shoughour (9 mars, 200 morts), en reponse a un raid d’islamistes contre un village alaouite, Souq al-Ahad a Alep (13 juillet, 192 morts), Al-Masharqah, a Alep, (11 aout, plus d’une centaine de morts), et enfin le massacre d’Aqyol, toujours a Alep, avec l’execution de 2 000 jeunes… Au mois de septembre, l’insurrection est defaite dans la region d’Alep. Essays On Music. Entre-temps, le regime a execute 1 152 Freres musulmans detenus dans la prison de Palmyre, le 17 juin. Ethics. Des lors, l’armee et les forces de securite vont se retourner vers le deuxieme bastion des Freres musulmans : Hama. Au niveau politique, Al-Taliaa al-mouqatila, durant l’annee 1981, tente de reconcilier, si ce n’est de refederer les deux ailes de la confrerie, Hama-Alep et Damas. Persuasive On Music. Cette derniere, semble un temps donner son accord au principe de la lutte armee et soutenir logistiquement ses freres du Nord par « necessite d’autodefense », d’abord, et ensuite parce qu’elle pense, en cette annee 1981, que le regime est malgre tout aux abois et que son noyautage de l’armee va porter ses fruits. Research On Accounting. Sauf que rapidement, les deux tendances vont a nouveau diverger, les « politiques » travaillant en meme temps a la constitution d’une coalition large avec les autres forces de l’opposition, dont la gauche.

Les Freres musulmans (l’aile de Damas etait majoritaire) finissent par se dissocier d’Al-Taliaa, qui multiplie alors les attentats a la bombe a Damas, au moment ou s’approche l’epilogue de l’affrontement entre islamistes et regime, a Hama. College. Les Freres estiment, apres le demantelement de leurs cellules dans l’appareil securitaire et l’eloignement de la perspective d’un putsch, que l’affrontement arme perdu et denoncent l’aventurisme d’Al-Taliaa. Paper Ethics. Trente apres, le ressentiment de la confrerie a l’egard des militants les plus radicaux demeure, en temoigne l’interview donnee par leur controleur general, Mohamad Farouk Tayfour, au quotidien Al-Hayat, le 18 janvier 2012, rappelant que « nous avions condamne le massacre de l’ecole d’artillerie, qui n’a pas ete commis par l’un des notres » , il revient sur Hama : « Al-Taliaa s’etait preparee a une confrontation militaire, mais nous avons pense que c’etait une erreur. Pimp My Essay. C’est Adnan Aqlah qui a entraine la ville dans la confrontation, qui [a suscite] une reponse a la violence du regime et de la colere. Research Paper Ethics. Mais je vous assure que la decision de la confrerie etait d’epargner a la ville un massacre. Need Essay. Nous avons considere cette confrontation comme un echec […] . Research Paper On Accounting Ethics. Le regime avait prevu le massacre, et Al-Taliaa ne voyait pas la situation telle qu’elle etait. Writing Essay. » Le 3 fevrier au matin, une patrouille de l’armee tombe dans une embuscade dans Hama et; tres vite, c’est l’escalade, la ville, declare liberee par les islamistes (apres l’execution de 70 a 100 notables par un tribunal islamique), sera assiege et methodiquement pilonnee et detruite et nettoyee par plus de 12 000 soldats loyalistes pendant trois semaines. Research Paper Ethics. Une tactique qui rappelle celle, plus pres de nous, utilisee contre certains quartiers de Homs en fevrier-mars 1982. Essays Censorship. Al-Taliaa al-mouqatila sera rayee de la carte. Research Paper. Quand aux Freres musulmans, toutes tendances confondues, ils vont etre poursuivis et methodiquement demanteles par les Moukhabarat dans les mois et annees qui suivent. Les Freres musulmans ne sont jamais remis de l’insurrection de 1975-1982, ne parvenant plus a reconstituer une infrastructure politico-organisationnelle dans le pays comparable a celle qu’ils avaient mis en place avant Hama, devenant de fait, une opposition en exil.

Ce qui explique en grande partie le fosse qui separe actuellement la confrerie des autres groupes politiques et militaires actifs sur le terrain. Le vide politique – dans l’espace islamiste – cree par la faiblesse de ce courant sur le terrain a egalement sans doute faciliter et aider les autres courants islamistes a se developper et prosperer plus facilement dans le cadre du soulevement actuel, voire une revanche posthume d’Al-Taliaa al-mouqatila… dont les survivants, tout comme les ex-Freres musulmans qu’ils avaient entraine dans leur sillage, n’ont sans doute jamais pardonne a la confrerie sa « trahison » lors du massacre de Hama. College Cover Outline. On peut meme, a se sujet, oser voire dans les groupes jihadistes actuels une sorte d’Al-Taliaa al-mouqatila-bis, dans leur radicalisme et refus de collaborer avec les forces politiques traditionnelles. « La bataille pour un Etat democratique n’est pas notre probleme, nous nous battons pour un Etat islamique. Paper On Accounting. Nous sommes contre des elections, les hommes n’ont aucun droit a se gouverner, ils doivent se placer sous les ordres de Dieu […] Nous prefererions encore nous allier avec le regime qu’avec des partis politiques [sous-entendu democrates] , avec eux, nous n’aurons jamais d’Etat islamique. Persuasive. » Damas utilsant des jihadistes… ou le retour du boomerang.

Si le regime s’est toujours efforce de traquer et de combattre avec acharnement « ses » islamistes, il n’en a pas toujours ete autant quand il s’agissait des autres, qui lui ont souvent servi d’arme de politique etrangere. Research Paper On Accounting Ethics. Mettons de cote la longue saga des mouvements palestiniens pro-Damas, le Hezbollah… qui aujourd’hui ont dans l’ensemble mis leurs distances avec Damas pour retrancher deux cas precis ou l’instrumentalisation de groupes jihadistes par Al-Assad a fini par se retourner contre lui. La base de donnees de Sinjar : quand Al-Qaeda en Irak cartographiait la Syrie… grace aux volontaires arabes que Damas laissait transiter par son territoire… Depuis les debuts de son occupation militaire de l’Irak, en 2003, Washington n’a cesse d’accuser Damas de soutenir l’insurrection contre ses troupes en laissant transiter armes et volontaires sur son territoire, voire en organisant directement leur transfert dans le nord et l’ouest de du pays. Pimp My Essay. Le departement d’Etat et l’armee americaine pointant regulierement des liens entre les services syriens et des reseaux al-qaedistes actifs dans les provinces sunnites irakiennes, longtemps (du moins jusqu’aux annees 2005-2010) bastions de jihadistes locaux et internationaux. Research Paper Ethics. Inutile de s’etendre plus sur le sujet. Condition In India. Plus interessent, si l’on ose dire, sont les effets « pervers » de cette politique a l’aune des evenements actuels : l’arrivee non negligeable sur le territoire syrien d’hommes en provenance de l’Irak voisin venus preter main-forte aux insurges : parmi eux, des Syriens, plusieurs dizaines (sur les quelques centaines) a avoir combattu les forces americaines, des Irakiens, Yemenites… une nouvelle terre du jihad bienvenue alors que les islamistes armes sont en grande difficulte sur le terrain irakien. Et d’autant plus bienvenue qu’ils ont acquis certaines connaissances sur la Syrie en marge de leur combat en Irak.

C’est le deuxieme effet de l’arroseur arrose. Research Paper On Accounting Ethics. Car ce qu’ignorait le regime de Damas (et il ne devait pas beaucoup s’en preoccuper alors), c’est que les jihadistes en transit chez lui tout comme ceux qui les receptionnaient de l’autre cote en ont aussi profite – directement ou par souci de securite, nous allons le voir – pour « parfaire leurs connaissances » sur la Syrie. Writing Good Essays. Tres bonne illustration de ce phenomene : la singuliere affaire dite des fichiers « Sinjar ». La base dite de Sinjar est une base de donnee faite a partir de documents captures dans cette ville du Nord Irakien en 2007 – et partiellement declassifiee et rendue publique par le Combating Terrorism Center de West Point – Elle decrit sous un nouveau jour cette Syrie « terre de passage des combattants d’Allah ». Research On Accounting Ethics. Et eclaire bien cet effet boomerang a venir, l’expertise acquise par les reseaux jihadistes sur le pays d’Al-Assad (a commencer par comment s’y mouvoir…). Prudents, le Conseil de la Shura des Mujahidin et l’Etat islamique d’Irak soumettaient en effet les volontaires arabes qui les rejoignait a de veritables interrogatoires et retracait leur parcours ; les chefs jihadistes ont pu ainsi se constituer une veritable petite base de donnees sur les reseaux, trafiquants et individus « amis » ou pas, de l’autre cote de la frontiere. En 2006 et 2007, par exemple, ce ne sont pas moins de 600 « profils » de combattants etrangers venus en Irak qui sont etablis. Cover Letter Outline. 42% ont cite un « contact » en Syrie ; beaucoup d’autres « au moins plusieurs ». Paper Ethics. Les « interrogateurs » semblent particulierement curieux, ou mefiants, demandant aux volontaires de decrire physiquement leurs contacts, les tarifs demandes, l’impression generale laissee au combattant… L’ »administration » des katibas irakiennes a ainsi pu ainsi se faire une bonne idee des filieres, efficaces ou non, mises en place en Syrie.

Le tout ajoute aux liens et relations tribales et familiales entre grandes familles irakiennes et syriennes des deux cotes de la frontieres. Cinq ans plus tard, quand il s’est agi d’aller preter main-forte aux « freres » syriens aux prises avec Bachar al-Assad, certains n’ont pas du avoir beaucoup de mal a franchir la frontiere. Pimp My Essay. Nombre d’informations essentielles pour un voyage confortable devaient etre proprement consignees dans leurs petits carnets de notes… De Nahr al-Bared a Damas, la curieuse saga du Fatah al-Islam libano-palestinien. Ce mouvement salafiste arme palestinien cree en novembre 2006 – et rejoint par d’autres volontaires arabes – fut a l’origine de la bataille du camp palestinien de Nahr al-Bared, entre le 20 mai et le 7 septembre 2007 – les combats internes les plus violents qu’a connus le pays du cedre depuis les annees de guerre civile (1975-1990). Ethics. Issu d’une scission du Fatah-Intifada – dit groupe Abou Moussa.

Un groupe lui-meme deja issu d’une scission du Fatah de Yasser Arafat, en 1983, a l’instigation de la Syrie – hormis chez Ariel Sharon, la haine obsessionnelle de Hafez al-Assad envers le dirigeant palestinien n’avait pas d’equivalent -, Fatah al-Islam fut fonde et dirige par Shaker al-Abssi, une vieille connaissance de Damas. Good Legal Essays. Al-Abssi fut en effet emprisonne par les Syriens vers 2004 apres s’etre livre a du trafic d’armes entre la Jordanie et la Syrie et avoir, semble-t-il, tente de lancer des operations armees contre les Israeliens sur le plateau du Golan. Research On Accounting Ethics. Avant d’etre « libere » d’une facon « inexpliquee » en 2005, date a laquelle il rejoint… l’Irak combattre les Americains, et ou il fraye avec Abou Moussab al-Zarqaoui, chef d’Al-Qaeda au pays des deux fleuves. Writing Good Legal. Et ce alors meme qu’il aurait ete implique dans l’assassinat du diplomate americain Laurence Foley a Amman en 2002 et condamne a ce sujet a mort par contumace par la justice jordanienne. On Accounting. Il ne sera evidemment jamais extrade par Damas… On retrouve donc Shaker al-Abssi comme par magie au Liban en 2007, ou on writing essay lui prete une double attaque a la voiture piegee a Al-Aqla, dans le nord de Beyrouth, le 13 fevrier, qui fera 3 morts. Paper. Avant, qu’en mai 2007, il prenne le controle du camp palestinien de Nahr al-Bared pres de Tripoli… Bilan : trois mois de combat, 222 militants islamistes, 160 soldats libanais et 42 civils tues. Letter Outline. Nombre de jihadistes se seraient infiltres dans le camp via la Syrie ou l’entremise de factions libanaises pro-syriennes, si l’on en croit les soupcons des Forces de securite interieures libanaises, le seul corps de securite du pays ayant toujours echappe au controle des allies de Damas et dont le chef en 2012, Wissam al-Hassan, a ete tue le 20 octobre dans un attentat a la voiture piegee qui porterait la signature des Syriens. En 2007, son predecesseur a la tete des FSI, le general Ashraf Rifi, accuse ouvertement, dans un cable a l’ambassadeur americain a Beyrouth Jeffrey Feltman, le regime de Damas d’etre derriere le Fatah al-Islam en s’appuyant sur des interrogatoires de prisonniers et des informateurs confirmant la connexion syrienne, entre autres…

Les Syriens, selon les promoteurs de cette these, se seraient appuyes et auraient utilise sur Fatah a-Islam comme un moyen de chantage pour faire echouer l’enquete sur l’assassinat de Rafic Hariri, ou du moins pour clairement signifier, par l’intimidation, au tribunal international qu’il n’avait pas interet a venir leur chercher des poux dans la tete. Toujours est-il que l’affaire du Fatah al-Islam va connaitre un premier denouement assez mysterieux. Paper. Les dirigeants du groupe vont d’abord, pour la plupart, reussir a s’exfiltrer du camp palestinien peu de temps avant sa chute. Letter. S’en suit un silence radio qui dure… jusqu’au 27 septembre 2008 et l’explosion d’une voiture piegee a Damas qui tue 17 personnes dans un quartier chiite. Paper. Au terme d’une enquete express, les autorites syriennes mettent la main sur les poseurs de la bombe : 10 militants du Fatah al-Islam, dont la propre fille de Shaker al-Abssi, Waffa… auteurs d’une confession devant les cameras de la television syrienne (photo). Comment le groupe a-t-il pu organiser un tel attentat dans la capitale syrienne en 2008 ? Mystere. Pimp My Essay. Les membres du Fatah al-Islam se seraient-ils venges en se retournant contre leurs anciens « allies », estimant avoir ete trahis au Liban a Nahr al-Bared ? Nombre de questions resteront sans reponse. Paper Ethics. Quand a Shaker al-Abssi, il meurt – opportunement ? – en octobre lors d’un accrochage avec les forces de securite syriennes.

Ses anciens camarades sauront en tout cas se rappeler au bon souvenir de Bachar al-Assad a partir du printemps de 2012 en apportant leur soutien a l’un des groupes jihadistes en lutte avec le regime syrien : Jabhat al-Nusra. Les amnisties interessees de Bachar al-Assad. Le 15 janvier 2012, dix mois apres le debut la revolte syrienne, le regime annonce une amnistie : le decret legislatif 10/2012 stipule ainsi qu’elle est octroyee pour « la totalite de la peine s’agissant des crimes mentionnes par les articles 285, 286, 287, 291, 294, 307, 308, 327 et 328 du code penal de 1949?, « la totalite de la peine concernant les crimes figurant dans le decret legislatif 54/2011 qui encadre le droit de manifester de maniere pacifique ». Pimp My Essay. L’effet d’annonce et le charabia juridico-repressif qui le suit vont masquer l’un des coups fumeux dont Damas a le secret. Research. Car l’ amnistie va concerner des gens fort eloignes des evenements : des dizaines de jihadistes. Persuasive Essays On Music. A commencer par le plus symbolique d’entre eux, Abu Moussaab al-Souri, sorti des geoles a la meme periode. Research On Accounting. Il avait ete arrete au Pakistan en novembre 2006, avant d’etre livre par la CIA aux autorites syriennes. Persuasive Essays On Music. Ancien d’Al-Taliaa al-mouquatila de 1976 a 1982. Paper Ethics. Il rejoint apres l’Afghanistan, ou il sert meme de sorte d’attache de presse a Oussama ben Laden avant le 11 Septembre, permettant a des reporters occidentaux d’acceder au chef. Censorship. Soupconne d’avoir « eu l’idee » des attentats londoniens et d’avoir conseille Al-Zarqawi, chef d’Al-Qaeda en Irak, il est surtout l’un des theoriciens du self-jihadisme, le passage a l’acte individuel, eu Europe notamment. Research On Accounting. Une theorie qu’il exposa longuement dans un manifeste publie en ligne peu avant son arrestation : Appel a une resistance islamique globale.

Pour Yasser al-Siri, directeur de l’Islamic Observation Center, cite alors par TheArabDigest.com , « le regime [cherchait] peut-etre a islamiser la revolution, pour l’ecraser de l’interieur. College Outline. » Ou a clairement signifier aux Occidentaux qu’il etait pret a relacher dans la nature tous ceux qui seraient susceptibles de les combattre, sur l’air d’apres moi le deluge. Paper On Accounting Ethics. Si l’on n’a pas de nouvelles, depuis, d’Abu Moussab al-Souri, il est peu probable que ses condisciples aient regagne leur penates – a l’image du chef de Liwaa al-Haq (lire plus haut). Writing. Combien sont-ils a se battre aujourd’hui sur les differents fronts du conflit syrien ? Les groupes jihadistes sur le terrain. Jabhat al-Nusra : l’ombre portee d’Al-Qaeda. « Pour l’amour de la revolution, il faut detruire ce groupe […] ou ils vont faire ce qu’on fait les bolcheviks en Russie : exterminer les autres revolutionnaires. Research Paper On Accounting Ethics. » Le site Yalla Souriya. C’est sans doute l’un des deux groupes les plus dangereux pour la stabilite d’une Syrie post-Al-Assad. Le Front al-Nusra proclame sa naissance, via une video postee sur un forum jihadiste le 24 janvier 2012. Condition Of Women In India Essay. Une « Declaration au peuple de Syrie de la part des mujahidin de Syrie sur les champs de bataille du jihad ». On Accounting Ethics. Son chef autoproclame, Al-Fatih Abou Mohamed al-Golani – une reference claire au plateau du Golan, dont une partie est occupee par Israel depuis 1967 – y annonce la constitution du Front d’al-Nusra, membre de « l’insurrection musulmane » , dont « les combattants affluent des fronts du jihad ». Of Women In India. Un vocabulaire qui le place clairement dans le champ du « jihadisme internationaliste ». Au debut, beaucoup, dans les milieux de l’opposition, doutent de l’existence meme du groupe, y voyant une manipulation, une creature des Moukhabarat du regime.

Assez rapidement, pourtant, le nouveau venu jouit d’une certaine popularite dans la communaute jihadiste mondiale, avec, notamment, l’entree dans la boucle, du cheikh Ousama al-Shihabi (photo), alias Abou Zahra al-Zoubaidi, chef du Fatah al-Islam palestino-libanaisgim -qui, pour le coup connaissaient bien le regime (lire plus haut) – qui lui donne son onction et appelle les jihadistes a le rejoindre. Research Paper On Accounting Ethics. Le chef jihadiste libanais donnait par ailleurs regulierement de la voix depuis l’automne 2011 sur des forums tels Hanein*, Ansar al-Mujahideen* ou Al-Massada*, appelant salafistes et jihadistes a prendre les armes, se coordonner et commencer a etablir la charia en Syrie. Les cellules d’Al-Nusra lancent des operations a travers le pays, avec une signature : l’attentat suicide. Need Help Essay. Deux voitures sont lances contre un immeuble des forces de securite a Alep le 10 fevrier ; le 17 fevrier, ce sont les renseignements de l’armee de l’air a Damas qui sont vises… Le groupe va aussi recevoir le soutien d’ideologues jihadistes influents et populaires, dont cheikh Abou al-Mundir al-Shinqiti. La presence du groupe va aussi se faire sur le terrain, plus conventionnel, du harcelement et des operations de guerilla contre les forces du regime avec le recours de plus en plus intensif, a partir du printemps, aux mines artisanales telecommandees (IED) visant les convois de l’armee. Research Paper. Il semblerait d’ailleurs que la montee en puissance et en professionnalisme du mouvement sur l’axe Al-Qusair-Homs-Maarat al-Noaman est allee de pair avec une jonction entre le noyau initial, stricto sensu syrien, regroupe autour d’Al-Golani, et des cadres jihadistes experimentes, palestiniens et libanais, issus du Fatah al-Islam apres l’appel d’Al-Shihabi. En avril, les forces de securite syriennes, annoncent la mort d’Abdelghani Ali Jowhar, militant du Fatah al-Islam recherche au Liban, a Al-Qusair, qu’il avait rallie avec une trentaine d’hommes. On Music. Une mort confirmee par Al-Shihabi.

A la meme epoque, des sources militaires libanaises annoncent qu’un cadre d’Al-Qaeda, Tawfiq Taha – commandant des brigades Abdullah Azzam, et 6 autres membres du Fatah al-Islam, ont quitte le camp palestinien de Ain al-Hilwe, pres de Sidon, et se sont infiltres en Syrie. La montee en puissance militaire du groupe sur ce theatre d’operations depuis le printemps peut etre chronologiquement verifiee a travers la profusion de videos qu’il poste. On Accounting. De l’IED, on condition essay passe a l’embuscade et au siege de positions de l’armee ; des quelques militants masques du debut, on research paper passe au deploiement de plusieurs dizaines de combattants sur des operations complexes, coordonnees par talkies-walkies et telephones satellites. Depuis, bien d’autres etrangers ont rallie la region. Censorship. Le 26 octobre a Binnish (une dizaine de kilometres d’Idlib), Jabhat al-Nusra organise un meeting « populaire » pour feter l’Aid. Research Paper. A la tribune, ces deux combattants saoudiens, dont l’intervention filmee mise en ligne par Al-Nusra a ete supprimee depuis. India Essay. Lors de ce meme rassemblement, un enfant chante des louanges a Ben Laden… Autre lien, celui a avec l’Etat islamique d’Irak (ISI), confederation jihadiste neo-al-qaediste, a l’autre bout du pays: la region de Deiz-Ezzour.

Grace a laquelle Al-Nusra (qui s’est signale des juin en mediatisant l’execution sommaire de 13 « chiens ») a non seulement beneficie de l’experience au combat de cadres d’Al-Qaeda venus du pays voisin, mais en a surtout fait une carte de visite lui permettant d’attirer des decus d’autres factions qui agissaient jusque-la sous l’appellation d’Armee syrienne libre. Paper On Accounting Ethics. Le journaliste Ghaith Abdul-Ahad a pu constater de visu cette attractivite a l’occasion d’un reportage pour le quotidien britannique The Guardian en juillet en passant quelque temps avec un bataillon commande par un ancien officier ayant quitte l’ASL, Abu Khudr, et ses troupes, qui occupent plusieurs villages de la province et qui dit tout le bien qui pense de ses nouveaux allies. Need Help Writing. Un autre responsable de l’ASL les decrit d’ailleurs comme de « tres bons combattants », t out paper ethics en etant effraye par leur propension aux executions sommaires… Aujourd’hui, avec ses quelques centaines de combattants dans la province de Deir Ez-Ezzour, Al-Nosra serait l’un des groupes les plus actifs militairement, selon un militant de la ville, ancien commandant de deux brigades de l’ASL, Hadj Abou Bakr, joint par la journaliste Mona Mahmoud le 11 octobre. Pimp My Essay. « Les 80 unites de l’ASL, dont 18 sont reellement actives, passent leur temps a publier des communiques ou a stocker des munitions, les vrais combattants sur le terrain sont les islamistes […] les gens commencent a soutenir les organisations jihadistes, plus que l’ASL ». Research Ethics. L’affirmation est peut-etre exageree (les sources video recentes montrent demontrent l’activite d’autres groupes, dont Liwaa al-Umma – lire plus loin), mais elle reflete l’inquietude ambiante. Le Front Nord : Al-Nusra dans la bataille d’Alep. Autre front militaire et mediatique pour Al-Nusra, la bataille pour le controle de la grande agglomeration du Nord, debutee fin aout par une offensive des rebelles. Persuasive Essays Censorship. La aussi, les combattants « lookes de Moujahid » sont sortis de l’ombre pour les premieres lignes. Research Paper On Accounting Ethics. Lors d’une rare rencontre avec un journaliste d’Al Sharq al-Awsat, leur commandant, Abou Ibrahim, qui disait fin aout avoir plus de 300 hommes sous ses ordres, reconnaissait beneficier « d’un certain soutien venu de l’exterieur » ; et s’il assurait ne pas avoir jusque-la recouru a des attentats-suicides, il n’en ecartait pas la possibilite, ce qui sera chose faite le 3 octobre avec une double attaque, place Al-Jabari, en secteur gouvernemental, qui fait pres de 50 morts. Autre « fait d’armes », la revendication de l’execution sommaire de soldats gouvernementaux apres la prise de la caserne de Hanano, publiee sur Al Manara Al Baida*, le canal mediatique du groupe.

L’activisme d’Al-Nusra et ses exactions n’ont pas l’air de perturber plus que cela les brigades Al-Tawhid, principale force combattante rebelle dans l’agglomeration et son arriere-pays, qui court jusqu’a la frontiere turque. Need Help Writing Scholarship. Mais pourrait-il en etre autrement ? Al-Tawhid renvoyant directement au concept d’unicite d’Allah, un b.a-b.a salafiste rabache depuis la naissance de ce courant…. Pis, dans une interview accordee a Al-Jezira, leur commandant qualifie les combattants de l’organisation de « freres » et souhaite la bienvenue a tous ceux qui combattent le regime sur le terrain… Cette collaboration entre Al-Nusra et les autres brigades de l’ASL ne se limite pas a la ville d’Alep : le 1er novembre, plusieurs unites de l’armee libre se sont alliees aux jihadistes d’Al-Nusra et d’Ahrar al-Sham pour attaquer la base aerienne de Taftanaz (dans le gouvernorat d’Idlib), une position gouvernementale strategique puisqu’elle abrite les 253e et 255e escadrons, soit la quarantaine d’helicopteres Mi-8 qui ravitaillent les garnisons assiegees du regime dans le nord du pays. Ethics. Sa chute, conjuguee a une autoroute Damas-Alep devenue quasi impraticable pour les convois de l’armee syrienne, isolerait encore un peu plus les positions de cette derniere dans la region. Essays Censorship. Cette operation montre encore a quel point les « Mujahidin », loin d’etre isoles, participent a des combats decisifs. On Accounting Ethics. Ici : les preparatifs de l’assaut contre la compagnie de defense aerienne de Doueyla, tombee le 2 novembre.

Difficile de rater l’autre grand groupe « independant » dont la dynamique semble elle aussi ascendante et qui opere dans le nord du pays : les Kataeb Ahrar al-Sham. Essay. A premiere vue la plus puissante faction jihadiste, leur profil semble – dans l’attente de plus amples precisions de leur part – egalement plus « traditionnel », une sorte de salafisme et jihadisme national – ce qui, en soi, peut deja etre considere comme une difference doctrinaire avec Al-Nusra, meme si elles accueillent elles aussi des combattants etrangers . Research On Accounting. Autre specificite curieuse, si l’on ose dire, ces brigades sont probablement les premieres a deployer sur le terrain les fameux missiles sol-air reclames a cor et a cris par l’opposition… (un Strela. College Outline. apparait a 1’05 sur la video qui suit), en plus de mortiers, vehicules blindes et chars recuperes lors de combats avec les forces gouvernementales. Research Paper Ethics. Les katibas d’Ahrar al-Sham ne seraient d’ailleurs pas completement etrangeres aux recents « deboires » de l’aviation du regime, de moins en moins souveraine a basse altitude (au moins 5L39 abattus les trois dernieres semaines d’octobre, selon un decompte source de l’Air Combat Information Group) et qui recourt de plus en plus a des raids effectues a haute altitude. Bien que ne communiquant pas officiellement sur le sujet, elles multiplient sur le terrain les operations communes avec Al-Nusra, et font preuve, comme ces derniers, d’une farouche independance envers les autres structures politco-militaires – tels les conseils militaires regionaux – mises en place par les groupes armes et militants se reclamant de l’Armee syrienne libre. Cover Letter. « Ils sont extremement professionnels et discrets, ils collaborent avec nous lors de combats contre les forces du regime, mais ils n’acceptent aucun ordre. Research Paper Ethics. Leurs armes […] sont meilleures que les notres », reconnaissait un rebelle d’Alep en aout. Essays. Le groupe admet d’ailleurs des financements exterieurs et n’hesite pas a evoquer publiquement ses bienfaiteurs des pays du Golfe, dont des fonds koweitiens, par exemple, rassembles par le cheikh Hajjaj : 400 000 dollars en mai ; 400 000 euros en juin pour le Front des revolutionnaires (voire plus bas)… C’est a partir du printemps 2012 que les brigades commencent a reellement apparaitre « publiquement », bien que leur activisme sur le terrain semble remonter aux quasi premieres heures de la revolte, elles pretendent d’ailleurs etre la premiere organisation a s’etre armee dans le pays, « n’ayant jamais eu d’illusions par rapport aux manifestations et sit-in pacifiques face a un regime sectaire menant une guerre a la communaute des croyants » – Il semblerait en tout cas qu’elles sont issues de premiers noyaux jihadistes s’organisant des le debut 2011, voire de cellules dormantes plus anciennes. Research Paper. A l’inverse d’Al-Nusra qui, jusqu’a il y a peu, se contentait de communiquer via des forums jihadistes. Of Women Essay. les Ahrar al-Sham mediatisent a outrance leurs operations via un site internet, un compte Twitter, etc. Ethics. – Les Ahrar al-Sham restent un brin sibyllins quant a leur projet politique, se bornant a affirmer leur volonte « d’etablir un regime islamique en Syrie » ; tout en pretendant vouloir « respecter les droits des minorites » – On ne peut qu’en douter.

Car outre une profusion de videos postees et repostees sur YouTube vantant ses operations militaires, le groupe intervient et est surtout regulierement cite sur les forums jihadistes internationaux, dont « Hanein » (cotoyant les groupes radicaux les plus durs, dont Al-Nusra et les multiples franchises d’Al-Qaeda) , ou il est suivi attentivement et respecte par la communaute jihadiste), ou en celui de Jhuf, en urdou, qui « donne » plus habituellement dans le taliban. Adoubees, les Ahrar al-Sham le sont aussi par le Cheikh wahabite Adnan al-Aroor, un sunnite syrien ne Hama et qui vit en Arabie Saoudite. Our Nation Essay. Et auteur d’une profession takfiriste qui en dit long sur sa vision « pacifiee » d’un futur post-Bachar : « Je jure par Allah que nous jetterons les cadavres des Alaouites qui se sont dresses contre nous aux chiens. Paper Ethics. » Une de plus. Persuasive. Sachant que Ahrar al-Sham dispose de trois katibas actives en pays alaouite ou a ses frontieres (Noussour Al Sahel, Obada ibn al-Samet, Nassrat al-Madhloum dans la region de Lattaquie), ou zones de peuplement alaouite et sunnite sont souvent a portee de kalashnikov… Le Conseil national syrien (CNS) s’est rapidement dissocie formellement du nouveau venu sur l’air, qui ne mange pas de pain, du « bien sur que nous sommes au courant » et en reaffirmant sa preeminence politique sur toute initiative dans le pays. Research Paper On Accounting Ethics. Tout en se gardant bien de se positionner politiquement sur le fond. Help Scholarship. « Grace » en soit donc rendue a l’un de ses membres, Frere musulman de son etat, Mohamed Sarmini, pour avoir caracterise la « chose » : « Le principal objectif de ce Front est d’organiser un soutien militaire et financier aux islamistes combattant sur le terrain », ajoutant que le Front en question agirait en coordination avec le CNS et les forces de l’ASL. Research Paper On Accounting. Une declaration plutot troublante alors que le CNS ne cesse de clamer son intention d’unifier la resistance armee dans le pays.

Mais qui donne du credit aux rumeurs persistantes qui font etat de tensions grandissantes au sein des Freres musulmans syriens, la force majoritaire du CNS, entre d’un cote le groupe dit d’Alep, au pouvoir dans la confrerie jusqu’en 2010, et celui de Hama, qui en a depuis pris la direction. College Letter Outline. Les uns et les autres donnant l’impression de parier sur leur « cheval militaire » en prevision de la chute du regime. Research Paper Ethics. Lire a ce propos Divided They Stand, excellente etude sur l’opposition syrienne du journaliste Aron Lund pour la Fondation europeenne d’etudes progressistes. Toujours est-il qu’Ahrar al-Sham semble avoir mis en veilleuse a l’automne son Front, dont le site internet n’est d’ailleurs mis a jour que rarement. Pimp My Essay. Et il semblerait qu’en guise de fronts unitaires, nombre de groupes aient ete purement et simplement satellises, integres, voire avales par les brigades, ce qui, peut-etre, a ete in paper fine le but de la manoeuvre. Issus d’une matrice nationale, leurs dirigeants sont tres peu connus. Need Essay. A commencer par leur commandant, Abu Abadallah al-Hamaoui, qui ne s’exprime que par communique. Research Paper On Accounting Ethics. Au 5 novembre 2012, Ahrar al-Sham revendiquait 58 katibas en activite a travers le territoire.

Meme si les realites operationnelles de ses unites sont tres diverses (d’une vingtaine de combattants a 200 pour les plus puissantes), il n’est pas imprudent d’evaluer leur effectif total a, au moins, plusieurs milliers de membres, principalement actifs dans les regions de Homs, Idlib et Alep – mais, a noter, une seule unite « solitaire » dans la region de Deir-Ez-Zor, bastion d’Al-Nusra. Pimp My Essay. Une force militaire cela etant dit non negligeable dans l’avenir. On Accounting. L’assaut, le 2 novembre, contre la base aerienne de Taftanaz, tout comme les combats de Maarat al-Noaman, avec utilisation de roquettes, de mortiers et meme des chars dont dispose aujourd’hui le groupe en est une illustration. Dans les zones liberees, le groupe s’attelle aussi a un autre travail, societal, celui-la. Persuasive Essays On Music. Outre les cours de justice appliquant un droit plus ou moins inspire de la charia qui se multiplient dans les regions controlees par les revolutionnaires – pas forcement jihadistes -, Ahrar al-Sham innove en investissant les champs de l’humanitaire, mais aussi de l’education avec l’ouverture de Madrassas pour enfants ou elles professent leur breviaire salafiste. Research Ethics. Comme ici dans la region d’Idlib, ou les cours specialises du groupe ont pour but de remettre dans « le droit chemin une generation sacrifiee » La petite legion etrangere libyenne de Liwaa al-Umma. Il faut retourner a Tripoli, capitale de la Libye, et a l’ete 2011 pour remonter aux sources de la « division de la communaute des croyants » ou de la nation islamique. Our Nation India Essay. Voire meme avant, du cote de Nalut, dans les montagnes de l’Ouest libyen. Research Paper Ethics. En ces temps-la, donc, les forces speciales de Qatar entrainaient ce qui allait etre la premiere unite rebelle a entrer dans la capitale libyenne, alors toujours tenue par les forces de Kadhafi : la Brigade Tripoli. India. A sa tete, un telegenique citoyen irlandais d’origine libyenne, Mahdi al-Harati, jusque-la prof d’arabe a Dublin et dont le seul fait d’armes connu fut sa participation a la flottille pour Gaza en 2010.

Apres la chute de la capitale libyenne, il est elu a son conseil militaire comme adjoint d’Abdelkrim Belhadj – un ancien chef du Groupe islamique combattant libyen – et sous les yeux doux (les cameras pour le coup) d’Al-Jezira. Mais a l’automne, ils perdent de leur influence suite a la crise securitaire et les affrontements entre katibas de Thuwar a Tripoli. Research Ethics. Il fait le voyage en Syrie en octobre-novembre, en compagnie d’Abdelkrim Belhadj, toujours, officiellement en « mission universitaire » ; Liwaa al-Umma serait sa reponse a une demande pressente de combattants syriens : « Ils m’ont demande si je pouvais les aider a s’entrainer et a s’organiser. Pimp My Essay. J’ai accepte. Research Paper. » Mignon, mais un peu court. C’est en juin que le groupe proclame « publiquement » sa naissance, en video (ci-dessus) et par une proclamation de foi dans laquelle il declare, outre son attachement « au jihad sur le chemin de Dieu pour elever la parole d’Allah », a « defendre la Umma contre les agressions », sa promesse de « Cooperer avec tous pour l’etablissement d’un pouvoir islamique juste elu par la communaute des croyants » ainsi que travailler a « sa renaissance » (Ennahda). Un discours islamiste, mais assez vague, Harati declarant d’ailleurs a qui veut l’entendre qu’il n’est pas un jihadiste, mais « un universitaire conscientise combattant par solidarite avec ses freres » . Mais comme souvent, avec les groupes islamistes armes, a force de vouloir ratisser large, on of women in india finit toujours par croiser un lievre : celui-ci s’appelle Abdallah Azzam, Palestinien, compagnon de Ben Laden et grand theoricien du jihad global devant l’Eternel (l’unite d’Al-Qaeda canal historique syrienne porte d’ailleurs son nom), dont Liwaa al-Umma a poste une video pour agrementer son appel (ci-dessous) aux jeunes musulmans a rejoindre « les terres du jihad « au pays d’Al-Sham ».

Entre-temps devenu « cheikh », Harati est a la tete d’une petite armee a l’effectif revendique – et exagere semble-t-il – de 6 000 hommes, essentiellement dans le gouvernorat d’Idlib, a « 90% Syriens », dit-il. Research Ethics. L’encadrement restant libyen et arabe. Writing Essay. Et, au vu des videos postees et des reportages consacres au groupe (Al-Jezira toujours), il semble quand meme disposer de moyens consequents, aux regard des standards de la rebellion, qui tranchent avec l’image de bon samaritain venu faire, au depart , de l’humanitaire : mitrailleuses 14,7, mortiers… en sus des specialistes en communication, logistique… Le tout mis en place en quelques mois. Liwaa al-Umma commence a operer au-dela de sa base d’origine d’Idlib, avec la creation de « franchises ». Paper. Comme a Deir Ez-Zor, ou son groupe local entretient des relations tendues avec le conseil militaire de la ville, si l’on en juge aux accusations mutuelles d ‘ »abandon des premieres lignes » et munitions livrees, ou pas, aux uns et aux autres. Scholarship Essay. Petit apercu des echanges sur place, un bon exemple de la confusion qui regne dans certaines regions syriennes : – Liwaa al-Umma, le 27 octobre : « La ville souffre depuis quatre mois de toutes les injustices et oppressions possibles et imaginables, mais le conseil revolutionnaire de Deiz ez-Zor n’a pas apporte une balle ni soutenu financierement la cite. Research Paper Ethics. Pas plus qu’il n’a soutenu les katibas qui tentent de forcer la route de la ville (la ligne ‘Al-Jazira) » – Reponse d’un dirigeant la katiba Al-Hamza : « Avec tout le respect que je vous dois, je vous ai personnellement livre au nom des conseils 13500 balles d’AKM, 2500 de PKS, 32 RPG, 400 obus de 14.7, 400 de Doushka, 12 500 balles de M16. Our Nation Essay. Sachant en plus que nous, la division Jaafar al-Tayar, rattachee au conseil revolutionnaire, n’avons jamais quitte les premieres lignes ; vous ne nous mentionnez jamais, et vous de nous avez jamais livre ne serait-ce qu’une balle recuperee sur le champ de bataille… » Ambiance.

Pour le reste, si le groupe assure beneficier du soutien de financiers prives, en particulier du Koweit, qu’il remercie regulierement sur sa page Facebook, on research paper ne peut s’empecher de regarder du cote, la encore, du Qatar. College Cover Letter. Question d’histoire et d’ADN de Liwaa al-Umma – Al-Harati traine d’ailleurs et paradoxalement son histoire libyenne comme un boulet chez certains de ses detracteurs islamistes qui n’hesitent pas a l’etiqueter « agent de Doha », voire, supreme insulte… de la CIA. Qu’a cela ne tienne, Liwaa al-Umma ne cache pas ses ambitions, y compris politiques : le groupe a l’intention de se doter d’une aile « civile » dans la perspective de l’apres-Assad. Les « freres libyens » : petits coups de main et grandes ambitions, en somme. Research Paper. Du moins pour leurs protecteurs. Writing Legal. Reste a voir comment ils parviendront a s’inserer dans les recompositions a venir au sein des groupes armes et politiques sur le terrain. Les katibas islamistes de l’Armee syrienne libre. Actif sous le nom-parapluie de l’Armee syrienne libre, il ne semble pas que ce groupe obeisse pour autant a grand monde. Research On Accounting Ethics. Les « faucons » sont nes en septembre dans le jebel Zawiya, une region de moyenne montagne situee au nord-ouest de l’autoroute Hama-Alep, et surtout l’une des premieres enclaves liberees par la rebellion armee du fait des difficultes d’acces pour les unites mecanisees de l’armee – ce qui a permis au groupe de beneficier assez rapidement d’une « safe zone ». Our Nation India. Ils ont ete fondes a Sarja par le cheikh Ahmed Aissa al-Sheikh aka Abu Aissa, dont le pere est l’un des « disparus » de l’ecrasement de la premiere insurrection islamistes au tournant des annees 80. On Accounting. Suivront Daoud (44 ans) et Abbas (33 ans), ses deux freres, tues les 4 juin et 14 aout 2011.

Un destin familial tragique qui rend Abu Aissa d’autant plus respecte comme chef de guerre. Essays. « Nous aimons la mort autant que vous aimez la vie » est d’ailleurs l’un des grands leitmotivs de Souqour al-Sham. Aujourd’hui dans le top 5 des unites rebelles en termes d’effectifs : plus de 6 000 hommes revendiques en activite dans le jebel Al-Zawiya, dans les regions d’Idlib, de Rif Hama, Alep, Ariha, Khan Shakhyoun, Maraat al-Noaman, Ariha, Saraquib et Saramin… Soit un territoire strategique couvrant les voies de communications entre Homs et Alep ainsi que les routes remontant vers la Turquie. Le groupe qui, jusqu’ici, acceptait un peu du bout des levres le Conseil national syrien comme un representant de la revolution, n’a jamais accepte de se placer sous son autorite, et encore moins sous celle de la faction de l’Armee syrienne libre representee par le colonel Riad al-Assaad, longtemps cantonne en Turquie et rentre en octobre dans le pays. Paper On Accounting. Il ne cache d’ailleurs pas son hostilite envers les Freres musulmans, quand bien meme il ne le dise qu’en termes diplomatiques et entre les lignes : dans une interview accordee au site du groupe, Abu Aissa exprime ainsi ses reserves envers « les actions menees par certains membres du CNS. Letter Outline. Dont les decisions ne [l’]engagent pas. Research. C’est nous qui sommes sur le terrain et sommes donc les mieux places pour apprehender le contexte que nous vivons ». College Letter. Circulez… Islamiste dans sa propagande generale (Abu Aissa est pour un Etat islmique) la rhetorique employee et le look de ses combattants – Souqour al-Sham est egalement visiblement assez lie a la Commission islamique du Levant (a laquelle renvoie son site web), une ONG salafiste disposant de solides relais en Jordanie et ans le Golfe, le groupe emprunte les « chemins jihadistes » dans certains de ses modes d’action. Research On Accounting. C’est l’un des rares (avec Jabhat al-Nusra) a recourir aux attentats-suicides, qu’il n’hesite pas a mettre en scene et a filmer (comme ici a Idlib) : Debut novembre 2011, dans le quartier de Bab Amr, a Homs, apparaissent au grand jours des hommes qui, pendant plusieurs mois, vont devenir les visages de la resistance armee au regime, jusqu’a personnifier l’Armee syrienne libre. In India Essay. Dirigee par un jeune lieutenant, Abdelrezzak Tlass, deserteur de l’armee et neveu de l’ancien et inamovible ministre de la Defense de Hafez al-Assad, la katiba al-Farouq va resister jusqu’en fevrier aux assauts des forces loyalistes contre ce quartier de la ville, qui en feront le symbole du martyr des zones civiles syriennes. Paper. La brigade Al-Farouq devenant, a cette epoque, l’unite la plus mediatisee de la resistance armee.

Mais l’histoire, meme tragique, etait peut-etre un peu trop belle, car sitot Bab Amr tombe, des langues d’autres commandants de l’ASL ont commence a se delier, certaines denoncant notamment la propension qu’avait eu le bataillon Al-Farouq a faire cavalier seul, son usage systematique de la violence a l’egard de ses adversaires ou concurrents politiques et a son refus de se coordonner avec les autres forces rebelles de Homs, a commencer par les 24 brigades unifiees de son conseil militaire. Our Nation India Essay. Ainsi, dans un echange de mails entre un responsable rebelle de la ville et le president du CNS de l’epoque, Borhane Ghalioun, revele dans le cadre des » SNC leaks » par le quotidien libanais Al-Akhbar, le premier fait le compte rendu au second d’une reunion des commandants militaires de l’insurrection a Homs. Research Paper. Ces derniers, dans un document en 9 points, vont jusqu’a accuser la brigade Al-Farouq du meurtre de combattants d’une autre unite rebelle a Bab Sbaa. Essays On Music Censorship. Un exemple parmi d’autres dans un requisitoire qui accuse le groupe d’Abdelrezzak Tlas, qualifie de corps etranger a la ville aux financements « exterieurs » ????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ??? ???????? (???? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????) ???? ??? (???? ????) ???? ?? ???? ????????? ?? ???. ?? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ????????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ???????? ????? ????????.

????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? (24) ?? ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????. Paper Ethics. ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?? ????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? «????? ????? ???????» ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ???????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? (5 ????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? «???? ???» ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????). La cohabitation entre les Al-Farouq – qui se sont depuis developpes dans le Nord (faruq al-shamal) et les autres forces – dont des groupes nationalistes – n’a pas l’air d’etre plus fraternelle ailleurs, notamment dans la region de Raqqa, ou ils ont provoque l’ire des autres groupes en prenant le controle (avec Ahrar al-Sham) du poste frontieres de Bab al-Hawa. Censorship. Et certains, activistes civils comme militaires, disaient debut octobre a un reporter du Time tout le mal qu’ils avaient l’air de penser de leurs nouveaux voisins au look salafiste, venus « d’ailleurs ». Quand a Abdelrazzaq Tlass, il a ecarte vers fin septembre-debut octobre, apres une improbable histoire d’adultere par telephone (….) qui en dit long sur le conservatisme ambiant chez les Al-Farouq. Ethics. Il a depuis cree son propre groupe arme (encore un) : le Ier corps.

Car le bataillon Al-Farouq, devenu brigades, est egalement symptomatique du glissement progressif, visuel et rhetorique, d’un mouvement arme debute par des transfuges de l’armee allies a des civils qui maniaient au depart un phrase militaire, non-religieux et nationaliste a un groupe a l’apparence et au vocabulaire desormais islamiste. Condition In India Essay. Meme si, des le depart, a l’image d’une majorite de groupes armes syriens, il a choisi une signature aux referents exclusivement sunnites. Aujourd’hui, les barbes ont pousse, certains combattants se disent salafistes et expriment leur depit a l’egard de l’Occident, le logo du groupe, un drapeau revolutionnaire syrien, et le lisere « Armee syrienne libre », se sont vu adjoindre des epees croisees sur fond noir… rappelant les logotypes jihadistes. Paper On Accounting. Meme s’ils ont – lire plus bas – toujours entretenu de bonnes relations avec le Conseil national syrien, contrairement a nombre de groupes qui n’ont cesse de la brocarder. Fortes aujourd’hui de plusieurs milliers d’hommes – certains avancent le chiffre de 10 000 – les brigades Al-Farouq, ont reagi fraichement a la naissance de la Coalition nationale syrienne a l’initiative de « la France et des Etats-Unis » « Pourquoi ses deux puissances n’ont-elles pas reconnu le Conseil national quand celui-ci refletait les aspirations des forces revolutionnaires, alors meme qu’elles avaient encourage sa creation ? » Font-elles mine de s’interroger. College. « Qu’ont fait ces deux puissances pour aider reellement la revolution syrienne ? » La suite vaut avertissement : « Ce qui se passe aujourd’hui en Syrie ne doit pas etre un combat d’influence entre puissances etrangeres, regionales et arabes visant a dominer notre pays, c’est le combat engage par les Nouveaux Syriens, porteurs du message « La mort plutot que la soumission » contre toutes ces parties reunies. Paper On Accounting. » Le groupe semble decide a monnayer cherement ses acquis sur le terrain. Pimp My Essay. Il ne sera pas le seul. Post-scriptum : Liwaa al-Fourqane, sur le baril de poudre du Golan. Ce relatif nouvel arrivant dans la galaxie des groupes armes ne meriterait sans doute pas que l’on s’attarde plus que cela sur son cas si ce n’etait la zone tres sensible ou il opere : le Golan, ou les obus de mortier ont tendance a se perdre au-dela de la ligne de demarcation entre la Syrie et Israel et ou les incidents entre les Israeliens et « elements armes » commencent et pourraient se multiplier. Liwaa al-Fourqane, qui mene des operations sur une zone qui s’etend de Damas a Quneitra, n’est pas tres bavard et n’est pas, a l’heure qu’il est, un adepte de la plume – aucune profession de foi programmatique n’a ete rendue publique pour l’instant.

Difficile, donc, de le cerner. Research Paper On Accounting Ethics. A part via la profusion de videos rendant hommage a ses operations militaires – de la simple escarmouche a l’assaut d’un poste de l’armee en passant par » la collecte de prisonniers » du regime, ce qu’il semble affectionner particulierement. Legal. Reste que beaucoup dans l’attitude generale de ses membres et la rhetorique employee n’invite pas – mais on research on accounting peut se tromper – a lui decerner la palme de la moderation. Au niveau organisationnel, Liwaa al-Fourqane s’inscrit dans la coordination armee d’Ansar Al-Islam (les partisans de l’islam), chargee de coordonner les operation rebelles dans la capitale sur le meme modele que les brigades Al-Tawhid a Alep. Need Help Scholarship. Et, exercice oblige ? Il dit s’appuyer sur des « financiers » venus du Koweit qu’il ne manque pas de remercier chaleureusement (video).

A suivre. Post-scriptum 2 : A Alep, l’union vers un Etat islamique (18/11/2012) Les principaux groupes jihadistes n’ont pas tarde a reagir, du moins a Alep et de concert, a la naissance de la Coalition nationale syrienne, reconnue comme seul « representant legitime du peuple syrien » par la France, l’Italie, le Royaume-Uni, la Turquie et les monarchies du Golfe. Research On Accounting. Le 18 novembre, dans un communique commun, les unites d’Alep de Jabhat al-Nusra, Ahrar al-Sham – dementies mollement par leur site national -, et Liwaa al-Tawhid (le principal groupe combattant dans l’agglomeration) ont annonce leur rejet de la nouvelle structure de l’opposition syrienne et de tout « projet etranger qui nous serait imposee par quelque parties que ce soit » ainsi que leur accord pour « l’etablissement d’un Etat islamique juste ».

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Small Business Financing Startup Costs. Money makes your business go, and usually banks make loans only to businesses with operating histories. In this session we will give you some alternatives, strategies, and things to think about in your search for financial help. You will learn how to locate, negotiate for, and maintain sources of money to help you start and expand your business. Money makes your business go. Research On Accounting! But don't try going to a bank to get it when you've just started in good essays business. Banks normally make loans only to businesses with operating histories.

This section will give you some alternatives, some strategies and some things to think about as you go about finding the money to make your business work. A banker's primary concern is your timely repayment of loans. The fuel to research ethics make loan payments come from your cash flow. So your management of writing good legal essays cash flow is of utmost interest to your banker and on accounting ethics you must convince the banker that you are an expert in making cash flow projections that safely include your loan payments. Here is more information on cash flow which is taken from session one of condition of women in india essay our Business Expansion course. As pointed out in the first session on picking a business, don't be discouraged by not having much money to start with. Many businesses can be started with no money at all. You can start small and on accounting ethics humbly and grow one order at a time. Here is a sample, partial list of businesses you can start with very little cash: Businesses You Can Start for Little or No Money. Our first reminder is that personal savings should be considered the primary source of funds for starting a business.

If you haven't started already, start now to begin accumulating cash through personal savings. Also, don't overlook the Small Business Administration (SBA) loan guarantee programs available for start-up businesses. With a SBA guarantee program in hand, your bank will be happy to talk with you! Finally, start your search for help writing scholarship, financing with a good credit rating. Most all sources of financing or credit have come to rely on a four-letter word to score your credit worthiness: FICO. FICO is a numeric method, using just three digits, to paper ethics predict the likelihood of paying your credit as agreed. FICO scores range from good legal 365 (not good) to a high of research ethics 850 (great). Need Help! The score evaluates your credit payment history, number of research paper on accounting open accounts, overall credit balances and public records such as judgments and liens. Generally, a FICO score above 680 will produce a positive response while a score below this will cause a lender to be cautious.

Before seeking financing or credit, it is a good idea to know where your FICO score stands. A number of credit cards now provide your FICO score on college, your monthly statement. You can also visit myFICO.com to on accounting ethics purchase your credit score and to review your credit reports. Or, how much can you reasonably expect to legal get? Refer back to your business plan. Paper! If it still doesn't answer the question, let's go step-by-step. In Session 11, Accounting and Cash Flow, you will learn how to good legal predict future cash needs by using a cash flow control form.

The cash flow control form will spell out all of your sources of income and expenses. Research On Accounting Ethics! For example, some expense items might include: Buying supplies and inventory while waiting to get paid Paying payroll and rent Buying equipment and fixtures Getting a computer Buying the pimp my essay business. Prioritize those areas where your options are limited to paying in cash, and review your alternatives where there may be another way. For example, it is not necessary to pay all cash for research paper on accounting, a delivery truck when you can rent or lease one. Next, review what might serve as collateral for your loans.

Some credit is granted on an unsecured basis, such as credit cards, but most small business loans are secured by the assets of your business, your personal assets, or both. Unsecured means that there is no collateral granted for the loan. Need Help Scholarship! Examples of unsecured are. Credit cards Unsecured lines of credit (like you get in the mail) Friends or relatives. Secured loans mean that there are assets pledged to research paper ethics secure the payment in the event you are not able to pay. Examples of persuasive essays censorship this are. Computer lease Home mortgage Car loan or lease Small Business Administration loan. Common types of collateral are equity in research paper on accounting your home, accounts receivable, inventory of the college cover letter outline business and equipment. Research On Accounting Ethics! Lenders go through an evaluation of the collateral to determine how much they can lend. Some key variables as to essay what kind of loan terms you can get are. Number of years in business - This is your track record and is very important.

Banks usually require three years while others are less stringent. Size of your company and the amount needed - Financing institutions vary in the way they service the research paper on accounting public. For example, you would probably not get a car loan and a large corporate loan at the same place. Do your research. Ask around. Get to the right spot. You are most likely familiar with a straight loan (debt) where the lender gets an interest rate and our nation india fees. Equity is where the money raised gives the investor an ownership interest. Research! This is common in good essays the sale of stock to a limited number of investors or participation by venture capitalists.

The sale of paper on accounting ethics stock is highly regulated by state and federal agencies and you will need the essays on music censorship help of a corporate lawyer. Normally the initial sale of paper on accounting ethics stock to the public (initial public offering or IPO) is deferred until an earnings history is established. Sometimes such a discussion arises with friends and family who want to of women in india be your partner. Consider this carefully because they will then participate in the increased value of the business and have voting rights. It is well beyond the research paper scope of this discussion to cover all the pimp my essay aspects of debt and on accounting ethics equity. Just be careful! Your lawyer and accountant would be appropriate sources for more information on pimp my essay, this subject. Entrepreneurs have a wide variety of on accounting options when it comes to funding. Below is a list of possible options for college cover, a small business to paper on accounting ethics research and college cover consider regarding lender types. Terms will vary considerably from lender to lender; important issues to consider: As an entrepreneur, you will be legally obligated to have individual responsibility for the credit obligation of your business.

Regardless of legal organization (covered in Session 5), lenders will have documentation to circumvent the research ethics organizational structure. This is usually called a personal guarantee. Don't panic! It is very common. Lending options for small businesses: Personal Savings Friends and Family Banks/Credit Unions Home Mortgages (Traditional or Second) Peer-to-Peer (Prosper, Lending Club) SBA Loans Micro-Finance Options (Accion, Opportunity Fund, Grameen Foundation) Alternative Lenders (Kabbage, Dealstruck, Fundation, Funding Circle, OnDeck) Crowd Funding (Indiegogo, Kickstarter, RocketHub, Peerbackers) Equity Funding Venture Capital Angel Investment Commercial Mortgage Specialized Lenders (Industry expertise, auto, business brokers, high-tech, specialized equipment, etc.) Lending Companies (OneMain) Finance Companies. This starts by knowing what your lender wants. A common way is to simply ask. A better way is to ask a friend or business advisor such as your CPA.

Our session 5, Business Organization, includes a comprehensive list of professionals that can help you. For a business loan, the most common things are. Business financial statements Business tax returns Business plan with budget or projection Personal financial statements Personal tax returns. Be ready to answer questions about your business, and be ready to highlight your financial performance both in pimp my essay the past and in the future. You will be more impressive if you have carefully thought out and become familiar with your plan. Bring your accountant if you need help. Be prepared to tell lenders why you need the money. I just need the money, does not inspire confidence or the fact that you have thought it through. Earlier in this session, you studied a number of different purposes. Give them some detail. Propose a repayment plan.

Examples of paper ethics different structures are. A line of credit, payable at your discretion but subject to in india essay renewal annually by the bank Term loan payable monthly over ___ years starting on ____ date. Most places have some flexibility. Potential lenders appreciate that you are thinking about paying them back instead of just getting the money. Needless to say, being well dressed and neat in appearance at bank meetings will reflect positively. Most lenders (including the on accounting ethics SBA) will want to see your business plan. Keep your lenders informed on the status of college outline your business: the good and the bad. If you are unable to research paper ethics make a loan payment on time, call your lender in legal advance, advise him or her of the problem and request the extension you need. Explain the sources of repayment. Paper On Accounting Ethics! Virtually all lenders will do a personal savings and outline corporate credit check through a company called TRW or by other means. Be prepared to discuss any prior credit issues/problems.

The best access to a lender is through a referral. Research! Lending is cover, a people business. Ethics! Have your CPA, attorney, or friend introduce you to a lender. The first thing that will spook lenders or investors is the fear you are puff rather than substance. Avoid giving the impression of being an over optimistic, pie-in-the-sky operator. As a start-up, do not plan to spend money on expensive entertaining. Your lenders will be more interested in knowing how their money is being used to grow your business. Do not depend on a bank to loan you money to start a business.

Most small businesses are funded by personal savings. College! Make a shrewd appraisal to minimize your risks and to limit losses to a predetermined limit. Your suppliers and vendors can be sources of financing. For example, if you need an illuminated sign for your storefront, the on accounting company you contract with to our nation india essay make the paper on accounting sign may provide financing so you can make monthly payments rather than pay cash. Condition In India Essay! Examples of financing from your suppliers include Longer payment terms Advertising and marketing assistance Furnishing or financing of equipment, signs or inventory. Advertising and promotional programs Bartering, which is to trade by paper ethics, exchange one commodity for another, can provide a source of financing. For example, your advertisements in essays censorship the local newspaper might be paid for by the bagels you make! Getting the money is only the first step. You should strive to be a good customer so you can get cooperation if you need help later.

A good customer sticks to his/her agreement. Make sure you understand the requirements and perform to them as much as possible. In a business relationship, lenders will ask for regular financial statements, which you should produce on time. There may be covenants. A covenant is a written agreement in which you promise to meet specified obligations such as submitting the agings of research paper on accounting your accounts receivable. The agings report will show the lenders if your credit customers are paying on time or not. Be proactive. Essay! Contact them if there is a problem.

Be sure to stay in touch even if nothing new is going on. Get to research ethics the next highest level within the organization. Sources of financing can surface from unexpected sources: List at essays, least five of ethics them: ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________. Some possible answers are. Suppliers: Ask for longer terms of payment. Your landlord: Ask the landlord to provide you with tenant improvements. Your customers: Ask for pimp my essay, either cash or prompt payment. Your capital investments: Ask the suppliers of your fixtures, equipment and signs to finance your purchases. They will be interested in doing so in order to get your business. Live frugally and begin saving up money now to start your own business.

Use your cash flow projection as your key tool to determine financing required. Ethics! Complete a business plan for meetings with potential lenders or investors. Have your business plan critiqued by appropriately informed people. Revise as necessary. Ask the Small Business Administration for advice. (Have your business plan with you.) Maintain a current financial information packet including financial statements and recent tax returns. Consider bartering services if appropriate. Use your CPA or attorney as referrals to lenders. Keep your lenders informed of letter your progress and any potentially adverse events. On Accounting Ethics! If you need a loan for essay, 6 months, ask for 12 months to be on the safe side. Expect a bank to help finance your new business. Ask for a loan without a detailed repayment plan in hand.

Overlook vendors and research paper on accounting landlords (for tenant improvements) as sources of financing. Avoid being the bearer of bad news to your lender. Ask for less than enough to need help scholarship meet your realistic needs. Exaggerate. Research Paper! (Instead, be conservative in your presentations to condition in india essay lenders.) Write a check without adequate funds in your bank account. Risk losing your home by paper, taking a Home Equity loan unless you are certain of your ability to repay. Sign personal guarantees unless absolutely necessary. Budget or spend money on expensive entertaining of potential lenders. Business Plan for Session 4: Financing the Business. You can continue to assemble your business plan.

We provided Microsoft Word templates for this section below: The full template for legal essays, all sessions can be downloaded as one document: Featured Video: Sources of Funding for New Small Businesses. Featured Video: What do business investors look for?

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The ethics of accounting research - ScienceDirect com

Analysis of Gender Representations in the Movie Shrek. Clearly displaying its difference, Shrek was the first film to win an Academy Award for Best Animated Feature in 2001. On Accounting Ethics! Looking at our nation india essay all the paper on accounting, three movies that have been produced so far, on can see that the characters of Shrek, who is an ogre and his love Fiona, who is originally a beautiful princess but then becomes an legal ogre herself, as well as other characters of the movie, go against the expectations of society regarding gender and its representation on screen. Research Paper On Accounting! We will write a custom essay sample. on Analysis of Gender Representations in the Movie Shrek or any similar. topic specifically for you. In this essay, I would like to discuss some aspects of this alienation in describing gender dimensions, and by showing that this alienation is not necessarily negative, I also would like to display how I believe Shrek really had a deep impact on society, as well as it encouraged reflection on need help what it really means to be a certain gender in today’s world. Shrek is a movie about this ogre called Shrek who lives by himself in a swamp and does everything that is basically not considered decent by society when it comes to proper behavior, including being dirty and picking his earwax to paper ethics use it as a candle for the dinner table. Letter! One day, his swamp becomes invaded by fairly tale characters that have nowhere to go, so Shrek decides to look for Lord Farquaad who can nullify his choice to paper ethics exile the characters of Shrek finds Fiona, the beautiful princess and rescues her and brings her back to Lord Farquaad.

Of course, as fairytales go, Shrek rescues Fiona and falls in need writing scholarship, love with her but this love seems to be impossible until we find out that Fiona herself is an ogre who changes her appearance every night due to a curse. On their way back to the palace, they both behave rather differently from what one could get used to research on accounting ethics in other fairytales as far as the condition of women in india essay, rescuer and the princess goes, which difference then brings them together and they end up getting married in paper ethics, forms of ogres. Good Essays! In the further parts of the movie, they continue to meet obstacles because of their. Page 2 Analysis of Gender Representations in the Movie Shrek Essay. appearance, such as expectations of Fiona’s parents and the whole kingdom, as well as they go through difficult times fighting against the stereotyping of people and others around them. Research Paper Ethics! At the en, however, their ove and in india essay devotion and their way of being who they are, no matter whether that is an ogre or a human, they become the viewer’s favorites, gaining respect both from them and paper on accounting the rest of their fairytale world for simply who they are, and for how they look or behave. In fact, the gender representations in Shrek are what make the our nation essay, audience and the rest of the characters fall in love with the main characters, such as Shrek, Fiona and Donkey. The text itself is gendered around the stereotypes of what is viewed acceptable in our world, as far as gender goes. What is does, however, it turns around those stereotypes and applies them in ethics, ways that allows one to reflect on their meaning, realizing that sometimes what is normal in society, what is masculine and feminine, might not always be true. Looking at pimp my essay Shrek, he is represented as a huge, very unattractive ogre who has a very dirty look, and inappropriate way of behaving. Paper On Accounting Ethics! Though this is college outline, so, he has a great heart, and some very masculine characteristics, such as pride, and research paper ethics competition when it comes to trying to win back his swamp and Fiona at the end.

His non-verbal communication tells a lot about his character, mainly when it comes to his attire and his way of acting towards others. When he first meets Donkey, for instance, he takes more space, and has less physical contact with contact with him then he does with Fiona, which clearly displays that he as a man displays masculine gender characteristics. These, however, because of letter, his attire and on accounting behavior, including his rescue of Fiona as an exact opposite of what one would call Prince Charming, go against some expectations of society of what masculinity should be like or should behave. Fiona, starting out persuasive essays on music, as a beautiful princess and turning into an ogre herself, gives the same example of gender representation as Shrek. One very interesting thing about her character in addition to her perfect behavior as a princess and expecting Prince Charming to rescue her, which represents her feminine character as typical, is her masculine characteristics that are much unexpected, such as burping and fighting like men when she gets attacked by Robin Hood and his men in the first movie. Also, the way in which she is paper on accounting, scared that that Shrek would not like her as an ogre, is something that is pimp my essay, unusual, however, shows some feminine aspects of society, such as being afraid for not being accepted or liked based on appearance. Her support towards Shrek in the second movie when she rather walks away and paper on accounting ethics cry by herself, also underlines her femininity, through the scene of her Feminine speech where she is trying to encourage the good relationship between Shrek and her family, inviting everyone into persuasive essays on music censorship conversation. Hence, her character displays the on accounting, idea of a shift from masculine to feminine characteristics which clearly demonstrates that sometimes gender characteristics might shift according to writing legal essays personalities, and people should not really stereotype gender because it is relative to research ethics the individual. As far as the characters of Shrek and Fiona, one can see this shift of masculine and feminine characteristics many times throughout the movie.

Sometimes one can see Shrek being the pimp my essay, emotional one, for instance when he does not know how to tell Fiona he loves her, that is more like a feminine characteristic. On the other hand, one can also see Fiona being more masculine –like when she becomes stubborn and says yes to Lord Farqaad from research paper on accounting pride. Based on this, their characters seem to be a criticism of society’s expectations towards masculine and feminine, showing that sometimes what is different might still be something positive, and worth loving. Furthermore, this criticism can very much be seen in the second movie where the producers actually twist the story by making Shrek take the potion that makes all of of women in india, them human. This transformation clearly displays that their human form is what society would expect them to be, and research on accounting when they are human they think they can be happy, however this happiness is not real. They do not feel themselves, thus they do not feel complete. When they realize this, through their way of realizing, also the audience realizes that who we are goes beyond just appearance and perfection. This goes back to censorship one’s perception of paper on accounting, Standpoint theory and Queer Theory because it lets one see that where we are positioned can affect one’s view of the world, and it also allows one to see that there is diversity of how we perceive ourselves. In fact, there are a lot of possibilities out there, and appearance or a difference in behavior or orientation should not be something that makes us prejudice on such difference.

No matter what people look like, or how they are perceived by society, important is that they are respected for being real and themselves, and this is how they will be able live happily every after. Our Nation India Essay! Furthermore, Donkey, as well as Dragon and their love are also something unusual in the movie, representing gender from a dissimilar perspective. Although Dragon is very feminine in her way of longing for love and Donkey almost is symbol of research on accounting, a man who is not ready for cover outline a serious relationship like many men today, their characters are based on research on accounting ethics a different type of pimp my essay, feminine and masculine than those of paper on accounting, Shrek and Fiona. Donkey is the type of guy that does not like to be alone, and he follows Shrek everywhere, showing a kind of help, collaboration which is clearly a feminine characteristic in contrast to Shrek’s masculine way of trying to solve things fast and paper effectively. In India Essay! Also his way of not wanting to be committed first, and trying to rescue himself by complementing Dragon’s beauty, reflects typical masculine characteristics of research paper on accounting ethics, a player. His way of talking frequently for longer times and less concrete, demonstrates Masculine speech characteristics of gender. Dragon, on the other hand in addition to her feminine personality also holds some masculine values by essays on music censorship providing immediate solutions like men while flying into the party to rescue, and also by research paper on accounting guarding the tower all by herself. As one can see, all the characters in Shrek shift when it comes to persuasive essays on music their analysis of research paper, gender representations. Some, more than others, but they all represent typical masculine and condition of women in india essay feminine gender expectations, as well as they go against them in on accounting, the same, through a sarcastic criticism achieved by drastic contrasts to cover outline society’s picture of the subject.

Looking at research paper the character of Lord Farquaad, for instance, one can observe the condition of women in india, way how he displays masculine characteristic of competition, by being dominating and direct and research on accounting authoritative, but his personality and attire and way of acting is contrast to what a good leader should be or should look like. His character is probably the one that is mostly masculine in his verbal interactions, however when it comes to physical ideas about the strength and of women in india protectiveness of men, he is almost ridiculed by the creators of the movie in order to highlight again that what society believes as being the typical masculine leader, is not always the way they really are. Moreover, the personality of the Fairy Godmother, many feminine characteristics are underlined, including the Masculine Deficit Model, according to which females are the relationship experts, and men like Shrek have no idea what to do to save their relationships. The fairy Godmother plays exactly this role through helping people by just “dropping a tear away”. She acts almost as a figure of research on accounting ethics, feminine evil, who stereotypes women as being interested in gossip, and always trying to get into other people’s relationships, just as she is trying to of women in india essay end Shrek’s and Fiona’s marriage. She is represented as a nice looking, good, elderly woman, almost a nice grandmother figure, but then her acts bring her to other side, displaying her as the ethics, typical female that is great interpreting non-verbals, pretends to persuasive essays on music show empathy and paper ethics comfort and support for others. The again, her character, just as the one of Lord Farquaad, shows that what we imagine people to be like based on gender, is not always the way they are. The last character, I would like to touch on from the movie is Prince Charming whose name already tells many things about his character, and again is condition of women essay, ridiculed and paper criticized in a way. He is handsome however, is not the Prince Charming that women would want for themselves, and clearly representing that even in our nation india, today’s world the Prince Charming on a white horse is just an idealistic vision of many women. I would say that his persona might be taken as a representation of the GLBT community through his gay-like speech and language, and through his obsession with his looks. Also, his character leads to research paper the idea of the transgender representation of society by the funny relationship he has with the legal essays, Ugly Stepsister, who is clearly a man in paper ethics, woman clothes.

The movie through their characters explores and gives space to existence of other forms of gender, leading one back to the Queer Theory, according to which one can step out of the heterosexual bobble and experience other views as well. The persona of the Ugly Stepsister is for instance a loveable being, and the audience can almost cross fingers for her that she can achieve her love with Prince Charming. In addition to them, I also felt that the need writing essay, character of the King who transforms into a frog creates the idea of transformation, thus implying the idea of transgender, and by allowing one see that although one may transform physically, that person still be the same inside and should be able to love and live the same as before. It is very interesting that although I have seen all three movies many times, now that I look at them through a gendered lens for analysis, I can realize things which I have not realized before. All the characters which I have examined, as well as the others, such as Pinocchio and Puss, they all somehow represent gender in research ethics, many different ways, giving the audience a clear picture of both how society perceives gender and how sometimes it should be perceived instead. Pimp My Essay! In fact, the character of Puss also, just as Shrek and Fiona, consists of both masculine and feminine characteristics.

Starting from feminine emotions that he uses to paper on accounting ethics manipulate his enemy, and the idea of same-sex friendships in which he, Shrek and our nation essay Donkey support each other and do things together. Similarly, to all their characters, also we in society shift our gender characteristics, and therefore, we should not prejudice or stereotype. In conclusion, I would say that Shrek is a movie that incorporates many gender representations, and it does a very great job to criticize those sarcastically, creating a funny feeling in the viewers, in the same time making them reflect on the meanings of masculinity and femininity, as well as on paper ethics concepts such as gay, lesbian, and transgender. These images matter because what is displayed in on music censorship, the media shapes the way in which people view those issues and concepts. The only things that I would have recommended to do differently, is the way in research on accounting, which the Ugly Stepsister and Prince Charming were portrayed because I felt that by portraying them in pimp my essay, a funny way, it might have created a funny feeling in people, which reflects the way people might view transgender people and gays in society. Prince Charming was also shown to be a mommy’s boy, which is not necessarily true for gay people, creating a false perception of that segment of society, and showing that the media is seen as gay keeper, deciding exactly what to let in and what to let out.

Lastly, it is my opinion that the movie Shrek is research, a great one because it targets both adults and children in different ways, encouraging reflection on certain issues, such as gender dimensions and the way in which they are viewed by society. It is a movie that definitely challenges the gender representations to which we have been used to, raising awareness of outline, our false perception of gender, and the fact that we tend to stereotype and categorize people based on behavior, appearance and language. I believe, therefore, that Shrek breaks the ice of certain gender stereotypes, and by doing this in a funny way, it also teaches us to be open-minded to research paper on accounting learn about ourselves and others around us because although we might not want to recognize but there is condition in india, a diversity among people in research paper, our world that needs to writing legal essays be respected in order to make the research ethics, world a better place for everyone to live in. Bibliography: Julia T. Wood, Gendered Lives: Communication, Gender and Culture, 8th Edition, Wadsworth, 2008.

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Compare Contrast Book To Movie Essays and Research Papers. Of Mice and Men Compare and Contrast The book , Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck, is about two men named George . and Lennie who are living in the time of the Great Depression. Research? They travel together and after they get themselves into trouble in writing, the city of Weed, they moved to work on a ranch. There is also a movie , “Of Mice and Men,” that is research paper, based off of the essay book . On Accounting? There are many themes in the story, one of them being power. Pimp My Essay? The movie differs slightly from the book in the fact that it has fewer. Great Depression , John Steinbeck , Of Mice and Men 945 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast, Bartleby, The Scrivener; book and movie.

is increasingly true in our world today. Many movie adaptations of great classic stories and literature works have been created with great . visuals. Question is, do the adaptations really carry the on accounting same meaning and weight of the original written works or are the adaptions meant to open new perspectives for the audiences? This paper will, through the need help writing essay examining the settings, character, tone and storylines, compare and contrast the book version and movie adaptation of the classic short story Bartleby. Bartleby, the Scrivener , Dead letter office , Fiction 1520 Words | 5 Pages. Compare and Contrast Life of Pi book and movie. LOP Compare and Contrast Essay Introduction: Was Life of Pi a true story of a boy stuck out in research on accounting, sea for 7 months with a Bengal . tiger, or all a lie that constantly toyed with our brains?

This was a question that always kept readers of the pimp my essay book and viewers of the research paper movie perplexed about cover outline which story was the accurate one and is what made it such a success. Research Ethics? In the movie , Ang Lee directs the story with his own take on a vast variety of writing legal essays visual details. The book however has many contrasting ideas and themes. Canada Reads , Canongate Books , Difference 1090 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast Movie and Book of Fahrenheit 451. V. P. ENG 214 Fahrenheit 451 “ Books can not be killed by fire.

People die, but books never die. No man and no force can . abolish memory. In this war, we know, books are weapons. And it is a part of your dedication always to make them weapons for man's freedom.” -Franklin D. Roosevelt Exactly these are the words that fueled the story of Fahrenheit 451. Fahrenheit 451 is a story that was written through a novel by paper ethics, Ray Bradbury and produced into college cover letter, a movie shortly after directed by research on accounting ethics, Francois. Dystopia , Fahrenheit 451 , Francois Truffaut 1260 Words | 4 Pages. The Green Mile - Book/Movie Contrast Essay.

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Compare and Contrast- ``in the Heat of the paper on accounting Night``; Movie or Booke. Compare and Contrast Essay – “In the writing good legal essays Heat of the research paper on accounting Night”; Movie or Book ? By Johanna “In The Heat of help . the Night” is a gripping murder mystery story that incorporates a major issue of the time it was written at; racism. The original novel (published in 1965), written by John Ball, is a story of Virgil Tibbs, a Negro homicide investigator. The death of orchestra-conductor Enrico Mantoli and a series of other events lead up to him in charge of a murder investigation in paper on accounting, Wells, Carolina. Essays? This is much to. Discrimination , Gordon Douglas , In the Heat of the Night 1016 Words | 3 Pages.

Subtitle PP Presentation: General Information on Pronoun Case | * Ocean’s Eleven Original (with captions) 3 minute video trailer from the original . movie filmed in 1960 * Ocean’s Eleven Remake (with captions) Now fast forward to ethics, the year 2001 and on music censorship, watch this trailer from the remake * Lecture - Compare / Contrast Essay * Lecture Compare / Contrast Essay - Text Transcript of Audio * Readings Readings | * Find out more about coherence and transitions between ideas. * Introduction. Bruce Catton , English language , Internet 467 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast paper After reading a book and then watching the movie based on that . book , generally people will say they feel disappointed because the movie lacks its heart and research paper on accounting ethics, substance. Even though the movie The Scarlet Letter, directed by Roland Joffe, is based on Nathaniel Hawthorne’s novel, it offers different characters and plot than the novel. However, the book captivates people more. In both, the story takes place in Boston, Massachusetts, in essay, seventeenth century. Research Paper On Accounting? The Scarlet Letter. Hester Prynne , John Winthrop , Nathaniel Hawthorne 2289 Words | 7 Pages. Writing A Compare And Contrast Paragraph. Writing A Comparison / Contrast Paragraph Comparison? shows similarities between persons, places, things, ideas, or situations. . Contrast ? points out the differences between persons, places, things, ideas, or situations.

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They are expected to. English-language films 1078 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast Every day there are thousands of compare and contrasting activities, events and even . Research On Accounting? conversations. We as humans obviously do this as obvious examples like comparing types off food, or clothes, or subliminally like acting a certain way in front of the opposite sex to essays, be a suitable mate. The compare and paper ethics, contrasting can be seen in scholarship essay, animals too, not just humans. Animals like male birds try to build nests for research paper female birds to be picked as mates, and then the female birds compare the. Audience , Audience theory , Female 1024 Words | 3 Pages. A Separate Peace: Differences between the Book and the Movie.

?Colin Goodman 1/14/14 Compare Contrast Comparing and contrasting t?Colin Goodman 1/14/14 Compare . Contrast Comparing and contrasting the difference between the book and movie of need help writing scholarship “A separate piece”. I personally think that the movie was much more fun to watch, but the book was better over-all. some of the paper on accounting reasons I did not like the movie are Brinker, and the way he seemed much more nice. I also did not like how Gene did not go to Leper’s house and how Leper came. Comparison 492 Words | 6 Pages. November 24, 2013 Professor Lyn Megow English 100.02 Compare and writing good legal, Contrast of the Namesake In The Namesake based on . the book and movie by Jhumpa Lahiri, there are several events and scenes that are interpreted differently throughout the film and book . The book is based on Gogol Ganguli, the son of immigrant parents Ashoke and Ashima Ganguli who struggles with his double identity and rebellion towards his family. The movie is quite different with its focus on research ethics, the parents and their relationship. Interpersonal relationship , Irrfan Khan , Jhumpa Lahiri 906 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast Essay on Twilight.

( Book ) | ( movie ) | * Book explains more about bella and where she is from arizona, sunny vilie, attends . high school, and her mom just married a pro baseball player and how she is cover, a new changed person after she remarried from research ethics bellas father then mentions how she is getting ready to go stay with her dad in arizona | * The movie start with her getting in the car leaving to organ with her dad and doesn’t explain anything about who she is | * The book says less about her and her dad’s. Bella Swan , Edward Cullen , English-language films 1600 Words | 4 Pages. Mice and Men - Compare and Contrast. Compare and Contrast Many movies are derived from essay novels, and all of them have major differences from the book . version. Paper Ethics? While there are many similarities in the movie and the book Of Mice and Men, there are many differences also. Some differences are presented through the characters, scenes, and the way the actors play their roles.

Senise wanted to persuasive on music censorship, get the story done within a time limit, so it was less detailed than the research on accounting book . In Steinbeck's novel, character image plays a crucial role in the story. Great Depression , John Steinbeck , Novella 1367 Words | 3 Pages. Brokeback Mountain compare and contrast. First, I applaud the movie for daring to tell a story that nobody else presumed creating. Even in 2005, this was a pretty prohibited thing to . discuss. India Essay? To its credit, the on accounting ethics movie follows the need help writing original story fairly close, but a details were left out that made all the difference. The short story Brokeback Mountain (1997) written by Annie Proulx received a lot of attention when it was first published in the New Yorker.

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In each event of his life he. 1061 Words | 3 Pages. habitually and carefully neat and clean can make for an interesting topic in a comparison and contrast essay. Dave Barry compares . the need help writing essay differences of research on accounting how women and men clean in his compare and contrast essay, Batting Clean- Up and Striking out. In Suzanne Britt's compare and contrast essay, Neat People vs.

Sloppy People she compares the our nation india differences of research ethics personalities between Sloppy people and neat people. Both essays compare cleanliness in cover outline, one way or another however they both have differences regarding their. Cleanliness , Comedy , Defence mechanism 1482 Words | 4 Pages. Compare/Contrast to Kill a Mockingbird Movie Book. December 2010 Revised Essay #3: Compare / Contrast To Kill a Mockingbird Book vs. Movie To Kill a . Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, is a story about Jem and Scout Finch, who are being raised by their father in Maycomb, Alabama, during the Great Depression.

The book shows us that Jem and research ethics, Scout’s childhood was rich with life experiences. In contrast , the movie version, by Robert Mulligan, excludes many important life experiences. Several events in help writing essay, the book are excluded from the movie , but should be included. On Accounting Ethics? . Atticus Finch , Great Depression , Harper Lee 645 Words | 2 Pages. Jimmy Ji Mrs. Coleman ESL 33 Compare and Contrast Essay 27 Oct. Writing Good? 2010 Pursuit of Dream In . Research Paper Ethics? this competitive world, it almost seems indispensable for people to at least pursue one thing to survive. Persuasive On Music Censorship? Does it mean that people all have to strive to accomplish something? Or does pursuing actually bring any enhancements or happiness to people’s lives? The answer might be very debatable because pursuing something might not be always ended with a great triumph or satisfaction. 1985 albums , Denis Waitley , Dream 980 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast Call of the Wild Essay.

CALL OF THE WILD The book and the movie of The Call of the Wild are both similar yet different. Like any movie . based on a book , the movie of The Call of the Wild presents different characters and events than the book so it can be unique and enjoyable. In this essay, I’ll like to on accounting ethics, compare and contrast the book and the movie . Essay? The book and the movie of The Call of the ethics Wild are fairly similar. Persuasive Essays On Music? In both the paper movie and the book , Buck first lives on Judge Miller’s estate and is kidnapped by Manuel, the. California Gold Rush , Difference , Dog 1375 Words | 3 Pages. ? Compare and need help writing, Contrast Essay Tips English 101 A compare and contrast essay is about comparing and . contrasting the research ethics differences and similarities to make a point.

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differences between the paper on accounting book , The Help, and the movie , “The Help”. Although the director did manage to keep some of essays on music censorship plot the ethics . same, there are still not as many similarities as differences in the book and movie . College Cover Outline? To start off, the research ethics director did keep most of the characters looks and writing scholarship, personalities the same in the movie as in the book . Some differences were that in the book Skeeter is big and tall, but the movie has her slender and average height, if not shorter. Hilly is research, portrayed in the book as a dark haired. Alcohol intoxication , Difference , English-language films 834 Words | 2 Pages. Compare and Contrast Economic Market Systems In differentiating between market structures one has to compare and pimp my essay, . contrast public goods, private goods, common resources, and natural monopolies.

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ENG.2 5/23/2011 The Road The Road was both a phenomenal book and film. While reading The Road I was both intrigued and interested as to . Our Nation India Essay? how Hollywood would portray this story, and after seeing the movie I was impressed with how closely the film followed the book . Research Paper On Accounting Ethics? Though the book was enticing and unusual the movie quickly surpassed the book in pimp my essay, my opinion. Though the movie followed the book closely, there were some differences such as the amount of flashbacks the research father has, the illusion of hope. Cormac McCarthy , Film , Kodi Smit-McPhee 922 Words | 3 Pages. ? COMPARE / CONTRAST English Composition I Dr. Help Writing Scholarship? Jodi Scala 02/07/2014 . COMPARE / CONTRAST 02/07/2014 In the world today things have majorly and severely changed. Ethics? On the writing good essays one hand we no longer have slavery, but on paper, the other there is condition of women in india, another type of slavery going on in cooperate businesses. In these two essays I chose and plan. Corporation , Doublespeak , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings 963 Words | 5 Pages.

?Name here Compare and Contrast October 16, 2011 Debra Pylypiw, Art 111-100-311 “The Alba Madonna” (1510) by Raphael Approx. . Research On Accounting Ethics? diameter 37 ? in. ; framed 54 x 53 ? in. Oil on letter, panel transferred to canvas National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. Andrew W. Mellon Collection Viewed in on accounting ethics, A World of Art (6th Edition) by Henry M. Sayre “Deposition” (1435-38) by college, Rogier Van der Weyden Approx. 7ft. 1 5/8 in x 8 ft. 7 1/8 in. Oil on wood Museo del Prado, Madrid Viewed in A World of research paper Art (6th Edition) by Henry. History of painting , Jan van Eyck , John the Baptist 999 Words | 5 Pages. Outsiders: Compare Contrast Movie to Book. since I read this book . A movie , a death, a church and friendship, The Outsiders has it all. A story of brotherhood, . friendship, and of a murder, a boy and need scholarship, his friend are caught in research paper, a murder, they have to help writing, escape form getting caught by paper, the police, and so they run away, starting their journey of friendship and hardships.

After reading the novel and watching the movie I noticed some differences, I'll start with Ponyboy, in the novel pony boy is slapped by persuasive essays censorship, his brother, but in the movie , he is pushed. Difference , English-language films , Film 563 Words | 2 Pages. seat. I think when you take a look at various horror films and research paper ethics, compare them; you will notice an censorship, array of different scare tactics/methods. You . will also notice many cliche ideas that a lot horror flicks have in common. I will point these ideas out in detail, when I compare The Dawn of The Dead horror flick released in 1978, with the one released in 2004; Two and a half decades later. The original Dawn of The Dead is a terrific movie . I will start off by saying I think the original is a little scarier. Film , George A. Romero , Horror and on accounting, terror 1242 Words | 3 Pages. ? Compare and Contrast Lesson Plan: Part One and need, Two Introduction to Topic and Guided Practice. Materials Needed- A granola bar . and a candy bar; and/or a one dollar bill and a quarter, Venn Diagram worksheet Compare and Contrast lesson plan activity time: 30-120 minutes, depending on use of research paper optional reinforcement and advanced exercises. If all sections are used, lesson can be divided into multiple, separate sessions if desired.

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?Professor Vogl Cognitive Psychology 17 April 2012 Compare and Contrast Cognitive development is the development of . intelligence and problem-solving ability that begins when you are a child. Jean Piaget and Lev S. Vygotsky were two psychologists who focused on cognitive development and had similar and different ideas with the subject. We will found out paper on accounting, how Piagets theory is condition of women, compared and contrast to Vygotskys theory. Research Paper? Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist that focused on india essay, the education of children. Developmental psychology , Jean Piaget , Kohlberg's stages of paper moral development 1122 Words | 5 Pages. Compare and Contrast Leadership and Management 1 Minnesota School of BusinessCompare and Contrast Leadership . and Management 2 Career Aspirations My goal is to obtain a position with my current company as a senior vice president of condition in india essay operations for the Mortgage Division. Research Paper On Accounting? This position is currently three positions up from my current management position.

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Color , Difference , Dimension 1387 Words | 4 Pages. Compare and Contrast of a Snowflake and a Raindrop Iva Gate . Eng 121 Umberto Umbertino 11/23/2012 I. The differences between a snowflake and a raindrop II. Snowflake A. Formation B. Shape C. CLOUD , Evaporation , Liquid 633 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast : Cal State LA amp; Cal Poly Pomona Cal State Universities are excellent choices because they are part of . the most affordable public education systems in the nation and promote access to higher education. When deciding to go to research ethics, a university like Cal Poly Pomona or Cal State Los Angeles, there can be many things that need to be considered in order to make the right choice.

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Crete , Daedalus , Difference 625 Words | 2 Pages. Compare and Contrast Essay Boxing is a sport known worldwide in which two people engage in a contest of strength, reflexes and . endurance by throwing punches with gloved hands. Research On Accounting Ethics? People have favorite boxers in different weight categories. Juan Manuel Marquez “Dinamita” and writing good, Emmanuel “Manny Pacquiao” are two favorite and very different boxers. They had different Amateur careers Marquez proceeds from a family of paper boxers, he began boxing in amateur tournaments at age 13. “Dynamita” marquez. Boxing , Boxing weight classes , Citation 1033 Words | 4 Pages. Compare and Contrast of: The Family Crucible: The Intense Experience of india essay Family Therapy Written by: Augustus Y. Napier, Ph. . Research? D. with Carl Whitaker, M.D. By: Queenesha Herbert Argosy University Dr.

Kaplan December 18, 2012 The Family Crucible is persuasive essays on music, a book depicting the research paper on accounting ethics scenario and persuasive, drama of the Brice family’s experience in paper on accounting ethics, family therapy with co-therapist Dr. Carl Whitaker and help, Dr. Augustus Napier. Paper? Presenting Issue . Family , Family therapy , Father 1130 Words | 4 Pages. method according to an Amy Chua, a Chinese-style mother, but Hanna Rosen, a Western mother, has written her own opposing perspective as a parent. Amy Chua . is a prime example of one those stereotypically strict mothers.

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Frederick Douglass also wanted abolish slavery.Malcolm X was born in. African American , Black people , Haiti 925 Words | 3 Pages.