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Textual Analysis Sample Essay Assignment: "Literary Analysis Paper
book review essay Book Review Sample Essay. 21 September 2006. Criticism Essay! Book Review for Wuthering High. Having to go to cover letter program, a boarding school and wear a uniform would be traumatic for literary criticism essay, most teenagers. Transition Words Essays! Add a ban on cell phones and music, and it is like the world is ending. Oddly enough, for literary criticism, Miranda Tate, these things become the least of her worries in the 257 page, young adult fiction novel Wuthering High. This novel was written by Cara Lockwood and published by MTV Books. Wuthering High is a modern novel that will be examined using a summary of its mystical plot , an analysis of the cover letter for application to university program, dynamic character Miranda, and a discussion of the assignment, book#8217;s theme about punishments . The summary of this book#8217;s plot combines the completely modern with mystical elements that make it truly entertaining.
The story opens with Miranda trying to downplay the major discretions, including totaling her dad#8217;s new BMW convertible, that cause her parents to send her to Bard Academy, a boarding school for juvenile delinquents. For a teenage girl who calls Chicago home, Bard Academy#8217;s location on an island off the coast of Maine seems like halfway across the world. As soon as Miranda arrives on the island, she knows something just isn#8217;t right about the school. The bus driver drives like a maniac and narrative disobeying asks her if she has any drugs. Literary Criticism! The athletic coach drinks out of a flask. There are even security personnel called #8220;Guardians#8221; who are allowed to get physical with students. Things get even stranger when Miranda learns that there was a student that disappeared from frost birches essay, Bard several years before, and Miranda becomes positive that this girl#8217;s ghost is literary criticism essay, haunting her. Over the course of the story, Miranda discovers that there are characters from classic novels, including Heathcliff from the novel Wuthering Heights , running loose around the school. Narrative Essay Disobeying! The plot comes to its climax when Miranda and her friends uncover the secret of the school. The staff members are all ghosts that died before their time on earth was supposed to be finished.
For that, they have been sentenced to serve at Bard for an indeterminate amount of time. Literary Assignment! The majority of the staff is composed of dead authors, and, unfortunately, one of the proposal, dead authors is Emily Bront, who has decided to free fictional characters into the real world, which could cause both the literary criticism essay assignment, fictional world and narrative essay the real world to collapse. If that weren#8217;t enough, Miranda also learns that she is the descendant of literary, Kate Shaw, an escaped character from Wuthering Heights . Emily is stopped when she enters Wuthering Heights and the book is burned. The main character in the book, Miranda, proves herself to be very dynamic . One of the most obvious changes in her is that her perspective on school, and papers Bard in particular, has shifted dramatically. At the beginning of the book, Miranda readily admits that she isn#8217;t very focused on school and claims that life is about balance, so she is justified in focusing more on clothes and friends to literary criticism assignment, the point that her grades slip. She is completely distraught when she learns that she has to go without her cell phone and her hair dryer; she even tries to run away from the school. By the words for 8th grade essays, end of the literary essay assignment, story, her perspective has completely changed. She is much happier with attending Bard and realizes that the absence of distractions truly does help her focus on studying. Instead of considering what to wear to the next party, she is thinking about scholarships and essay getting into literary essay, a good college. On a deeper level, Miranda is essay, dynamic because she has become more self-aware.
She is unable to make the connection between the lack of attention from her parents, who are too concerned with Botox injections and a mid-life crisis, and essay assignment her desire to birches essay, act out and get herself in trouble. Literary! At Bard, Miranda has to attend counseling sessions. During her first session, Ms. W, her dorm mother, teacher, and counselor, asks Miranda about her family. Because her parents are so focused on themselves, Miranda is the one that generally takes care of herself and her little sister. Frost! Ms. W points out the fact that Miranda#8217;s tendency to get in criticism essay trouble may be her way of frost birches essay, trying to literary assignment, prove to papers, her parents that she is still a kid. Due to assignment, this realization, Miranda begins to accept her parents for who they are and accept the fact that it really isn#8217;t her fault that they act the way they do. Although it is not directly stated, it appears that by the end of the novel, Miranda#8217;s impulse to act out japanese papers has lessened from what it was at the beginning of the story. Although there are many themes that can be drawn from Wuthering High , one of the primary themes is that punishments can turn into positive experiences if they are approached with an open mind.
Miranda may not have started out her experience at Bard with an open mind, but with the help of her new friends and her teachers, she discovers a range of positives about attending a school for delinquents that is run by ghosts. Even though Miranda loves her best friends from home, Liz and Cass, she accepts the fact that it is literary criticism essay assignment, probably good that she can#8217;t spend a lot of japanese papers, time with them anymore because they are a bad influence and literary criticism assignment increase her chances of getting in trouble. Also, as was previously mentioned, Miranda realizes that being removed from the distractions of home, including her cell phone and parties, allows her to concentrate on schoolwork and that she doesn#8217;t really mind doing her schoolwork. She seems to have better direction in her life and she has goals beyond dressing well and having a boyfriend. Even her choice in boyfriends improves during her time at Bard. Prior to being sent there, she briefly dated a guy that had a bad reputation; on a date, he spiked her drink with alcohol. At Bard, she becomes closer to a guy that she knew from her old school, and he genuinely cares about her. Order! Instead of having a date that involves alcohol, they end up having a date where they enjoy eating Pop-Tarts, which are contraband at Bard. All in all, Miranda discovers that her punishment isn#8217;t really that bad after all, and she seems to be happy that she was sent away to Bard.
In brief, the book Wuthering High is a story that has a mystical plot , a dynamic character Miranda, and a theme about punishments . For a world where everyone seems to criticism, be concerned with who has the biggest and the best of essay, everything, this story demonstrates that sometimes, less really is more. Cell phones do not have to become an extension of one#8217;s arm. Computers may be helpful, but sometimes a pen and paper can work just as well. All in literary criticism all, people need to learn to place less value on material things and place more value on the things that are priceless: friends, family, and a good education.
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Optimization of the ion extraction from an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) by IBSimu modeling. Questo lavoro di tesi ¨ nalizzato a raggiungere una pi¹ profonda comprensione del processo di estrazione di un fascio di ioni da un Inductively Coupled Plasma accoppiato a uno spettrometro di massa (utilizzato per l'analisi di soluzioni radioattive). In particolare, lo studio ¨ stato focalizzato sulla plasma torch e sull'extraction interface - costituita da sampler e skimmer. Per capire i processi che avvengono tra lo skimmer - a valle del quale il plasma perde la sua quasi-neutralit - e la prima lente ottica, ¨ stato utilizzato IBSimu, un software appositamente creato per simulare l'estrazione di ioni ed elettroni da una sorgente di plasma. As said in the previous section, nowadays one of the most important meth- ods in atomic spectrometry is the literary criticism ICP-MS: the two main reasons for its success are the topic of research true multi-element capabilities and literary criticism assignment, the extremely low detec- tion limits. All ICP sector eld instruments consist of : ¿½' an ion source (see chapter 3 for a detailed description); ¿½' a sampling interface (see chapter 4 for a detailed description); ¿½' an electrostatic lens system, used to guide, focus and accelerate the positively charged ion beam onto the entrance slit and to narrative essay shape the beam, giving it a more rectangular prole (in accordance to the ge- ometry of the entrance slit); ¿½' a magnetic sector, which bends ions according to their momentum; the electromagnet is typically operating in static mode (that is, at a constant eld) and the eld strength can be changed varying the criticism essay assignment electric current; ¿½' an electric sector, where dierences in frost ion energies are compensated to literary criticism assignment a certain extent; ¿½' a curved ight tube, between the poles of the electromagnet; ¿½' an stories love entrance and an exit slit, to criticism essay assignment shape the geometry of the ion beam and to achieve a good resolution (which depends on the width of the incident ion beam and thus on the width of the words for 8th essays entrance slit) ; ¿½' zoom and/or lter optics: in the Neptune, a zoom lens and an en- ergy lter, in order to maintain the direct guidance of the incoming ion beams into literary essay, the detector and to permit ions with suciently high kinetic energies to pass only; ¿½' a detection system, consisting - in the Neptune - of a number of Fara- day detectors, arranged along the focal plane to measure all isotopes of interest simultaneously; in addition, there are also electron mul- tipliers, discrete dynode detectors and channeltrons to monitor low isotopic abundance nuclides; ¿½' a vacuum system, otherwise the narrative essay ions would scatter and there would be a signicant loss of transmission and criticism assignment, sensitivity (see later for more details about transition words grade essays, dierent pressure regions). It has to criticism essay be underlined that two dierent congurations are possible; in the studied case the plasma source and the extraction interface are grounded, as ions are accelerated by the lens system potential. Other instruments have the opposite conguration, with the ion acceleration provided by the 8 Figure 2.5: Schematic drawing of the Neptune MC-ICP-MS (Thermo Sci- entic) . interface, posed at a high voltage. The disadvantage of this solution is transition words for 8th essays, that all mechanical parts have to be isolated. Moreover the literary criticism assignment risk of discharges caused by the conducting plasma is high .
The number of articles re- porting this alternative arrangement is low   . With both this settlement is possible to do High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HR-MS). The present work is focused on frost birches essay, the mass spectrometry rst step: the analyte ionization through an literary criticism ICP; therefore the following argumentation will be focused on the plasma source.9 2.3 ICP-MS applications. In order to topic complete the ICP-MS introduction, an overview on the possible applications is provided in the following. Referring to literary criticism essay the examples chosen by Jakubowski et al.  in the sector eld devices area, it is possible to frost birches essay group the applications in three categories: ¿½' multi-element analysis, ¿½' isotope ratio applications, 9Nowadays, ICP sources have a similar design in all commercially available instru- ments, independently on the type of mass separator .
9 Figure 2.6: Schematic of an ICP-MS system. Various gaseous (dashed lines) and liquid (solid lines) sample introduction devices are shown . ¿½' speciation analysis. Multi-element analysis has been the major application area of sector eld (SF) instruments during the criticism last 15 years. The main reasons for their success are the capability of multi-element measurements, high sensitivity, low detection limits and fast and love, accurate direct data acquisition of the majority of nuclides suering from spectral interferences at low mass res- olution. ICP-SFMS is used for biological and environmental analyses: to determine element concentrations in body uids - such as blood, urine and cerebrospinal uid -, for the detection of trace elements in sections of assignment hu- man hairs, for monitoring Ca in biological samples - to study Ca pathways and metabolism -, in water research, to monitor the fate of heavy metals (including Rare Earth Elements) in japanese papers the environment, for the direct multi- elemental determination of criticism essay assignment trace elements in diluted sea water and for soil samples analysis - in order to monitor heavy metal mobilization. Japanese Term Papers? In in- dustrial applications and materials research, ICP-MS is mainly used in the semi-conductor industry and in the characterization of pure and ultra-pure materials; other applications are quality control of ultra-pure water, am- monia and acids, determination of the assignment stoichiometry and trace impurities in thin barium strontium titanate perovskite layers (used in microelectron- ics), assessment of the purity of TlBr single crystals and forensic studies or provenance determination. Laser Ablation coupled to ICP-SFMS has to be mentioned because it is used either for bulk quantication of elements, for depth proling or the identication of contamination spots. Concluding, multi-element analysis is used in food and nutrition science - for japanese term, beverages, 10 vegetables, sh and criticism assignment, infant food - and in cover letter to university graduate program geological and essay, radionuclide appli- cations - for studying trace element concentrations in geological samples, soils, sea water or sea water particulates10 and radionuclide determination. The superior sensitivity and topic of research, the capability to avoid spectral interferences by literary criticism assignment, operating at high mass resolution are undeniable advantages for isotopic analysis as well. Frost? Applications range in many elds: from biological to literary criticism assignment en- vironmental samples, from narrative essay order, geological to criticism assignment provenance and migration studies.
Tracer experiments were conducted to investigate elemental uxes in, e.g., the environment or metabolic processes; natural variations in birches the isotopic composition of selected elements are used for solving problems in a biological context; Pb composition analyses are used to assignment distinguish between natural, geogenic Pb and for application to university graduate program, anthropogenic Pb; through Sr isotopic analysis11 is pos- sible to trace the criticism assignment provenance of goods, agricultural products, food or even animals and humans - in archaeometry and forensics. Even radionuclide applications are important: ICP-SFMS measurements have proven useful in the nuclear industry and in proposal the related environmental and safety aspects. Irradiated nuclear fuel has been analyzed by means of MC-ICP-MS for the optimization of the fuel cycle and for safeguard aspects. At last, ICP-MS instruments are used in literary essay analytical problems related to biological systems or environment studies; information on speciation is required in essay disobeying order to understand processes related to toxicity, transport and bio-availability of metals or biological processes in which metals are involved. Criticism Essay Assignment? In life science and environmental applications high mass resolution is needed for proteins studies (e.g. for the characterization of metal containing or metal-binding proteins in stories love biological systems), analysis and quantication (e.g. for literary criticism essay assignment, selenoproteins, metalloproteins and protein-bound metals). 10Sea water temperatures can be calculated from transition for 8th grade essays, Mg/Ca ratios.
11Isotopic and elemental signatures bear the potential of providing unique ngerprints which can be directly related to the origin of the sample investigated. Essay? 11 Chapter 3 Plasma torch The ICP is generated in a discharge gas (Argon, in our case) without using any electrode, by the application of a high frequency electrical current to an induction coil, enveloping the plasma torch , as it will be explained in the following. The development of ICP sources began in 1942 , when Babat published his rst paper on the properties of electrodeless discharges and realized the transition grade rst ICP operating at assignment, atmospheric pressure. About 20 years later, Reed published two articles on his ingenious approach to the stabilization and thermal isolation of the narrative disobeying order producted plasmas. He under- lined three properties that make ICP a superior source of atomization and ionization: high gas temperatures, capability of being sustained in noble gas environments and freedom from literary essay assignment, electrodes (representing a contamina- tion). As a result of these good analytical performances, studies on ICP were started in 1962 and the rst use of an Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma as an ion source for mass spectrometry dates from 1978 . Sciex, Inc., introduced the rst commercial instrument for ICP-MS at cover graduate program, the 1983 Pittsburgh Conference, which catalyzed an explosive growth of interest in the technique . In fact, until that year, commonly used ion sources were not suitable for the rapid, direct examination of aqueous samples because extensive sample preparation was required.1 Then, several other instrument companies conducted ICP-MS research and, between 1985 and essay assignment, 2010, about term, 20 commercially available instruments were introduced to the market (con- sidering both the ICP and the GD plasma source) . For a complete list of the literary essay assignment commercial sector eld mass spectrometers with plasma based ion sources see Table 3.1.
To understand how an ICP works, it has to be known that high frequency currents owing in an induction coil generate an oscillating magnetic eld, whose lines of force are axially oriented inside the coil. In an ICP, the plasma torch - where plasma is generated - is enveloped in 2 or 3 turns of copper tube, cooled with either water or Argon; this settlement produces an essays electromagnetic inducted eld by literary criticism, a time-varying magnetic eld. The power 1The sample was evaporated onto words for 8th grade, a lament for thermal ionization or incorporated into literary criticism assignment, an electrode for spark ionization before the sample-containing substrate was physi- cally mounted in the vacuum system. The associated time requirement for these opera- tions was rendering the routine analysis of large numbers of solutions impractical. 12 Table 3.1: Commercial sector eld mass sp ectrometer with plasm a based ion source s 1985-2010  Name Man ufacturer a Y ear of japanese papers Status T yp e of literary instrumen t Geometry in tro duction V G 9000 V G Elemen tal 1985 discon tin ued GD-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Plasmatrace I V G Elemen tal 1988 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson JMS-Plasmax I JEOL 1991 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Plasma 54 V G Elemen tal 1992 discon tin ued MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Elemen t Finnigan MA T 1993 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Plasmatrace II V G Elemen tal 1994 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson JMS-Plasmax 2 JEOL 1995 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Nu Plasma Nu Instrumen ts 1997 discon tin ued MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Axiom V G Elemen tal 1998 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Axiom MC V G Elemen tal 1998 discon tin ued MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Elemen t 2 Thermo Quest 1998 av ail able ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Nu Plasma 1700 Nu Instrumen ts 1999 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Neptune Thermo Quest 2000 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson IsoProb e-P GV Instrumen ts 2004 discon tin ued MC-ICP-SFMS magnetic se ctor + hexap ole collision ce ll Elemen t XR Thermo Electron 2004 av ail able ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson A ttoM Nu Instrumen ts 2004 av ail able ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Elemen t GD Thermo Electron 2005 av ail able GD-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson SPECTR O MS Sp ectro Analytical Instrumen ts 2010 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Mattauc h-Herzog Nu Plasma II Nu Instrumen ts 2010 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Astrum Nu Instrumen ts 2010 av ail able GD-SFMS Nier-Johnson Neptune plus Thermo Scien tic 2009 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson a Man ufacturer names are according to birches their names when the instrumen t w as in tro duced. 13 supply is literary criticism assignment, given by a radio-frequency (rf) generator, that ranges typically between 1 and 1.5 kW, at a frequency of about 27 MHz. A sketch of the plasma torch used by Neptune MC-ICP-MS is disobeying, represented in Figure 3.1; it is usually referred to literary essay as a Fassel torch, from the american chemist Velmer A. Fassel. Transition Words For 8th Essays? The following treatise, which aims to give an overall description of the torch, is mainly based on the publications by Fassel  and Houk , while a detailed nomeclature description of the system can be found elsewhere . To form a stable plasma, a pattern of essay three Argon ows is needed; so the Fassel torch consists of three concentric quartz or fused silicate glass tubes, carriyng a total Argon ow between 11 and 18 L/min. Since the birches essay plasma temperature is literary assignment, so high, a thermal insulation is birches essay, needed; the outer tube main operation is thus to insulate the device from the outside environment. Literary Criticism Assignment? To this aim, the Reed's vortex stabilization technique is used : a ow of Argon tangentially introduced streams upward, cooling the inside walls of the outermost quartz tube and centering the transition words for 8th plasma radially in the tube.
The outer tube has a 2.5 cm diameter and carries a plasma ow between. 10 and 15 L/min; it is also responsible for the main supply of Ar to literary criticism assignment the plasma. The middle tube provides the auxiliary gas (0.5 ¿½'' 2 L/min), whose role is to lift the plasma o the injector. The auxiliary gas is injected tangentially too, in order to create a vortex and stabilise the cover letter program plasma. The eect of the previous two tubes is to generate a stable toroidal plasma through the centre tube, in literary criticism assignment which the sample aerosol is injected. The Argon ionization is narrative essay order, started by a spark produced by a Tesla coil; the ions and electrons this way formed interact with the oating magnetic eld given by literary assignment, the load coil. The result is a high frequency oscillating electron and ion current, which heats the plasma gas to high temperatures: gas-kinetic temperature of frost birches essay 5000 ¿½'' 8000 K, ionization temperature of about 7500 K, excitation temperature of 6500¿½''7000 K, and electron temperature of about.
10000 K; then plasma is maintained by essay assignment, inductive heating. The aerosol generated from the sample is either created by nebulization of a liquid sample solution or consists of solid particles carried by cover letter to university program, a gas ow when sample material is ablated by a laser; it is then transferred into the centre of the plasma by an Argon gas ow (0.8 ¿½'' 1 L/min), through the inner tube. To be eectively atomized and criticism essay, excited, the topic of research sample aerosols should remain localized in the interior high-temperature environment of the plasma as long as possible. The sample species employ about 2 ms to reach the observation height of criticism essay assignment 15 to 20 mm above the load coil (ALC); this time is sucient in of research proposal an environment with such a temperature (between 5000 K and 8000 K) to give rise to an ecient volatilization and atomization of the sample components and subsequent excitation and ionization of the atoms thus formed .2 The Saha-Eggert equation  can be used to estimate the eciency of 2Just for a comparison, the residence times and temperatures experienced by the sample are approximately twice those found in the hottest combustion ames common used in AAS . 14 Figure 3.1: Inductively Coupled Plasma conguration . 15 the ionization for the resulting analyte atoms, using the electron densities and literary essay assignment, temperatures typical for the ICP discharge: it results that all elements with rst ionization potentials below 8 eV are completely ( 90%) ionized and even elements with rst ionization potentials between 8 and 12 eV are ionized by more than 10% . Frost Birches? So the plasma source ionization eciency is much higher for essay, the ICP than for the other devices;3 moreover, referring to atomic spectroscopy, it is words for 8th, also economically convenient.4 Predominantly singly charged ions are generated for all elements of the periodic table. Thus, the mass spectrum observed mainly consists of signals corresponding to literary assignment the singly charged elemental ions of the frost nuclides of all elements present in the sample. ICP sources had been developed for optical spectroscopy; when they were adapted for literary assignment, mass spectrometry, secondary discharges (called pinches or pinch eects) between the plasma and the sampler arose. They were caused by the rf potential in the plasma and they gave rise to numerous deleterious eects: rapid deterioration of the sampling and the skimming cones, contamination of the love plasma with sampler and skimmer material, high photon noise and high ion energies with large energy spreads . In order to decrease this phenomenon, the Neptune torch is equipped with a guard electrode (GE), also called torch shield or capacity decoupling.
This is a grounded platinum foil placed in between the plasma torch and the load coil. Since one end of the coil is connected to literary essay assignment the rf source and the other end is grounded, a potential gradient exists along the coil, which becomes capacitively coupled into the plasma. The plasma, in turn, is electrically coupled through the sheath (see chapter 4) to term papers the sampler. These two impedance sources act as a potential divider; if plasma potential is too high a strong secondary discharge forms between the plasma and the sampling orice . Gray showed  that insertion of criticism essay a grounded, slotted metal cylinder (the torch shield shown in narrative order Figure 3.2) between the load coil and the outer wall of the torch shields the d.c. potential component from the plasma and provides a low plasma potential - in the following it will be shown that this last gain improves the operation of the ICP-MS. In addition, the literary assignment guard electrode decreases the ion energy spread, and thus can help to stories love increase the overall ion transmission . In order to minimize the plasma potential and secondary discharge, mainly two other dierent load coil congurations have been used:5 ¿½' inverted (or reversed) load coil: the load coil is grounded at the down- stream end nearest the criticism essay sampler; ¿½' center-tapped load coil: a high voltage of equal amplitude but opposite phase is applied to the coil edges, while the center is connected to ground. 3In the Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry is lower than 5%. 4The operating cost of disobeying these plasmas owing in the Fassel torch, exclusive of the electrical power, is lower than the cost of the gases needed to operate the nitrous oxide- acetylene ame commonly used in literary Atomic Absorption Spectroscpy (AAS).
5Also the interleaved and the balanced load coils have been studied . 16 Figure 3.2: Sketch of stories a plasma torch in which is clearly visible the guard electrode. Figure 3.3: Design features of an inverted load-coil (A) and a center-tapped coil (B) . 17 Chapter 4 Extraction interface In coupling an literary essay Inductively Coupled Plasma and a Mass Spectrometer, the trouble is that ICP operates at atmospheric pressure, whereas MS requires an ultra high vacuum (UHV) condition (operating pressure less then 10¿½''7 Pa), otherwise the of research ions would be scattered by the gas atoms. The solution to literary criticism essay such a pressure discrepancy is to essay stories love interpose three interfaces between the gas source and the analyzer, resulting in a four-regions solution. While the rst one is at ambient pressure (105 Pa), the second region (called interface) is pumped by a regular rotary pump, to obtain a pressure of 2 · 102 Pa.
The higher is the criticism assignment grade of narrative essay disobeying order vacuum, the literary essay assignment better are the instrumental performances features, such as transmission eciency or abundance sensitivity; as a con- sequence, stronger vacuum pumps are becoming popular. To preserve the high vacuum condition in the third region, a slide valve is interposed; it is only opened when the plasma is operating stable and disobeying, is closed before plasma shutdown, to isolate the essay assignment high vacuum. The third region, where lenses are located, has a pressure of about 5 · 10¿½''2 Pa, while the words for 8th mass spectrometer (nal region) operates in ultra high vacuum conditions (about 10¿½''7 Pa). It has been found that such a low pressure is advantageous in the case of multi collector devices ; in order to provide this result, the analyzer is separated from the lens system by a second valve and literary criticism assignment, additional ion getter pumps are required. Frost Birches? The development and improvement of the ion sampling interface for assignment, ICP-MS have been crucial aspects of the success of the technique. The rst analytical mass spectrometer for ion sampling from an ICP used a stagnant layer type sampling interface  1. Term Papers? At the end of the plasma torch, an literary criticism essay assignment interface was present to cover letter for application to university extract a small fraction of plasma with its ions into literary assignment, a vacuum system.
This interface was composed by two cones, a sampler and graduate, a skimmer. The rst one consisted of a water-cooled copper cone, on whose tip was mounted a molybdenum disk, through whose center was drilled a 50 µm diameter orice. Literary Criticism Assignment? Due to transition grade essays this small diameter, an literary criticism assignment aero- dynamically stagnant layer of gas formed between the two cones, as shown in topic proposal Figure 4.1. 1This type of pinhole sampler was adopted in the early days from essay, ame and plasma sampling methodology and frost birches, from the original work of Gray with a d.c. capillary arc plasma . 18 Figure 4.1: Diagram of criticism essay boundary layer sampling interface for ICP-MS . Since electrons are faster than ions, a space-charge sheath containing an excess of love ions builded up around the tip of the cone. This stagnant bound- ary layer was in thermal contact with the literary criticism relatively cool sampler, making the layer temperature intermediate between the plasma one and the sam- pler one. As the boundary layer was extended across the topic of research sampler tip, ions were extracted only after a large number (about 106) of collisions with the layer. This transport through the literary assignment boundary layer induced several liabilities: rst of all it was probably facilitating ion-electron recombination, ion neu- tralization at the sampler walls, charge exchange, ion-neutral attachment, nucleation and condensation of solid deposits (mainly due to the formation of involatile metal compounds) and some occurring reactions might have been catalyzed by the metal surface of the orice disk. Secondly, consid- ering the supersonic jet downstream the cover for application to university graduate sampler cone, collisions leading to clustering, ion-electron recombination or charge exchange also occurred. Consequently, sample deposition occurred in the sampling orice - metal oxide and metal hydroxide ions had been observed.
Progressive solid con- densation of sample material both made the extraction eciency of analyte ions gradual decreasing and restricted the useful life of orices. Criticism Essay? Even nowa- days the rst components that have to be changed in a mass spectrometer are the topic of research proposal sampler and the skimmer cones: their lifetime is limited by the sputtering in the region immediately behind the aperture . Back to the problem of solid deposition, with this conguration biological uids required a dilution factor of several hundred before analyses of such solutions could be performed for more than one hour. The consequent deterioration in powers of detection for analyte elements was not acceptable for various ap- plications. Owing to the diculties arised with this type of sampling, a new 19 sampling interface has been adopted: the supersonic nozzle and literary assignment, skimmer .2 The version of this technique used in our ICP-MS consists of frost birches essay a large sampling orice: with this conguration it is possible to break through the intermediate sheath and to literary essay have a continuum gas ow condition. The sheath is narrative essay order, a thin ply around the inner edge of the sampling orice; in this ply the literary criticism essay charged particles shield the rest of the gas ow from the potential on the sampler (usually grounded). Topic Of Research? Therefore the extracted ow passes through the sampler as a quasineutral plasma,3 i.e. with essentially equal densities of ions and electrons.4 Cool layers are still present, but they form obliquely around the inside edge of the orice, instead of criticism essay assignment across its mouth . Consequently the salt deposition and the oxide ion formation are much less severe . So, this conguration provides several advantages: ¿½' a much higher total ow of ions; ¿½' a more representative sample of ions from the plasma; ¿½' greater resistance to plugging from deposited solids.
The improved resistance to erosion and expansion is also because such an orice is made with relatively thick metal near the tip. Figure 4.2 is a scale drawing of continuum sampling interface. The sampler (or nozzle) (A) is a nickel-made cone, in which tip is frost, drilled a 0.8 mm diameter orice with a length of 0.25 mm. Criticism Assignment? The internal and external sampler angles are 90¿½'¿½ and 120¿½'¿½, respectively. Coaxially placed, 7 mm downstream the sampler, there is the skimmer, made from stainless steel with 50¿½'¿½ and 60¿½'¿½ internal and external angles, respectively.5 The short distance between the term two cones allows a sequential pressure decrease and it could be varied by changing the essay assignment thickness of the Teon spacer (C). Both the sampler and skimmer are grounded; nevertheless there could be some benets applying a voltage to the skimmer - see section 7. From the work by term papers, Hu et al.  it results that larger sampling orices could bring higher ion signals: the plot in Figure 4.3 shows how the Co and Bi ion count rate increased drilling out the circular aperture progres- sively. Since also the criticism essay assignment background pressure increased after each drilling, it was necessary to empirically adjust the separation between the sampler and the skimmer to maximize the of research ion signal. Moreover, a small orice is more subjected to clogging compared to a bigger one: as it can be seen in Figure 4.4 a pressure decreasing in the case of the smaller orice is observed, since it plugs quickly. In conclusion, enlarging the orice could provide a double 2This type of sampling interface have been in literary criticism assignment use since the pioneering work of Kantrowitz and Grey in 1951 . 3The charge density is considered to be suciently high as to ensure that the love charac- teristic Debye length is small with respect to the dimensions of the interface components - under this condition it's possible to consider the beam as neutral.
4This concept is supported by literary criticism assignment, calculations based on a paper by Axford and Hayhurst. 5Nowadays, dierent skimmer cone designs are available, characterized by dierent transmission eciency . 20 Figure 4.2: Scale drawing of continuum sampling interface for topic of research, ICP-MS . 21 Figure 4.3: Ion count rates as a function of sampler orice diameter . benet: a higher ion signal and an improved tolerance to orice plugging. However it has to be underlined that these studies were conducted with a continuous ow ultrasonic nebulizer, which transported material to the plasma at a rate at least 10 times greater than the essay one obtained with a con- ventional pneumatic nebulizer. Essay Stories? As a consequence, the second improvement would not be relevant in our case. In order to understand the performance of this interface and particu- larly to nd the parameters needed in the simulations (see section 6.4) the gas ow (in molecules/s) through the sampler can be calculated through equation (4.1)  used by Olivares and Houk in their article (dating 1985): U0 = ¿½'f (³)NAD 2 0 P0 4 ¿½'' mRT0 (4.1) where f(³) = ¿½'' ³ · [2/(³ + 1)](³+1)/2(³¿½''1) , NA is Avogadro's number, D0 the orice diameter, P0 the ICP pressure, m the mean molecular weight of Argon, R the gas constant, T0 the source gas temperature of the essay ICP, and ³ is the specic heat ratio at constant pressure and volume (Cp/Cv) of Argon. Essay Disobeying Order? 22 Figure 4.4: Normalized interface pressure as a function of time for continu- ous nebulization of 1000 ppm Y at sampling orice . 23 The ow through the skimmer cone is given by the following equation: US = U0 · f (³) DS XS 2 (4.2) where DS is the skimmer diameter and XS the skimmer-to-sampler distance. These theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimentally obtained values for an ICP with 10 mg/l Co solution .
In a 1988 article, Douglas and French provided another way to describe the gas expansion through these two orices; in literary criticism essay their article the essay stories love gas ow across the sampler was given by literary criticism,  G0 = 0.445 n0 a0 D 2 0 (4.3) where n0 is the source number density and a0 the speed of birches sound in literary criticism assignment the source: a0 = ³ k T0 m (4.4) (k is the Boltzmann's constant). The equation for frost birches essay, the gas ow through the skimmer uses the gas density and the ow velocity at the skimmer tip, n(xS) and v(xS) respectively, and the area of the skimmer orice AS:6 GS = n(xS) v(xS) AS (4.5) These two models (the one by Olivares and literary criticism assignment, Houk and the one by Douglas and term papers, French) are based on assignment, a common assumption: as the plasma plume is expanding from a sonic orice into a region of lower pressure, it produces the cover letter graduate program development of the free jet shock wave system . Literary Criticism Essay Assignment? As it can be seen in transition for 8th grade the cross sectional view showed in Figure 4.5, the ow eld consists of a dark core portion, named zone of assignment silence (unaected by the pressure changes along the jet boundary), laterally bounded from essay disobeying, a barrel shock and ending with the criticism so called Mach disk (its thickness has been found to be of the term papers order of magnitude of the mean free path ). This phenomenon has been well characterised by Ashkenas and literary essay, Sherman ; they calculated the distance downstream the sampler at which the letter graduate program Mach disk forms: xM = 0.67D0 · p P0/P1 (4.6) where P1 is the interface background pressure. This relationship has been conrmed experimentally by optical measurements of emission excited in the Mach disk . As the gas passes through the sampler, it expands adiabatically into the low pressure region; since the mean free path (») is much smaller than the diameter orice, several collisions between fast atoms from the dark core and literary assignment, background atoms occur. This phenomenon causes the essay stories love formation of the Mach disk and the barrel shock, depicted in Figure 4.5. Moreover, through 6The ow velocity is nearly constant at p5kT 0/2m . 24 Figure 4.5: Cross sectional view of supersonic expansion behind the sampler . this scattering process, the random thermal motion of atoms in the plasma is converted into literary, directed motion in the zone of silence: the ow velocity can than exceed the local speed of sound and the Mach number becomes greater than one (M 1).7 The Mach disk formation is observable analyzing atom velocities and graduate program, temperatures (showed in Figures 4.6 and literary essay, 4.7) as a function of distance downstream the sampler cone. Proposal? The rapid acceleration and cooling of the atoms are expected from a supersonic expansion  and is represented by the series of point that start about literary essay, 2 mm downstream the sampler. At a position of topic of research about 10 mm another population of literary atoms forms: this new population, slow and hot, is given by fast atoms which collide with background atoms and transition, constitutes the Mach disk.
In order to nd a numerical result for the gas ow through both the sampler and the skimmer using the literary criticism essay assignment two models previously shown, some other relations are needed. The Mach number in the plasma is less than one (M 1); as the gas passes through the frost birches essay sampler the density decreases, the ow speed increases and M increases too. In this region the centerline Mach number for a monoatomic gas - as in this case - is literary criticism essay, given to a very good approximation by M = 3.26(x/D0) 2/3 ¿½'' 0.61(x/D 0) ¿½''2/3 (4.7) where x is the axial distance behind the orice. This means the transition words for 8th essays Mach number reaches 1 at a distance equal to 0.5 orice diameters downstream 7The Mach number is dened as the ratio between between the gas ow speed (u) and the local speed of sound (a0). 25 Figure 4.6: Axial velocity dependence downstream from the sampler cone: 4 fast, cold component, slow, hot component . Figure 4.7: Axial temperature dependence downstream from the literary sampler cone: 4 fast, cold component, slow, hot component . 26 Figure 4.8: Scatter plot of the gas temperature as a function of the distance from the cover for application to university program sampler in the free jet, obtained from equation (4.9). the sampler. Furthermore the gas density and temperature decrease inside the jet, according to the following equations: n0 n = 1 + M 2 ³ ¿½'' 1 2 1/(³¿½''1) (4.8) T0 T = 1 + M 2 ³ ¿½'' 1 2 (4.9) where n0 and T0 are the gas density and literary criticism essay, temperature in the source.
Equation (4.8) could be approximated back to the onset of the Mach disk by n(x) = 0.161 n0 (D0/x) 2 (4.10) This relation, that describes the drop in japanese papers intensity of neutral species along the criticism essay centerline, has been experimentally conrmed by Niu and Houk, when in 1994 they measured electron densities in the interface with a Langmuir probe . The plot in Figure 4.8 represents the temperature drop described by topic of research proposal, equation (4.9); this decrease corresponds to a narrowing of the literary width of the velocity distribution (Figure 4.9) as the random thermal motion is converted into directed motion with a relatively uniform speed. A combination of all the to university graduate program displayed equations have been used to obtained the results highlighted in Table 4.1. The gas ows have been obtained with two dierent equations and literary essay, are in program good agreement, especially in essay assignment correspondence of the of research proposal sampler cone. In 27 Table. 4.1: Parameters and. constan ts used to literary criticism calculate the. o w - highligh ted.
skimmer with tw o dieren t mo. Houk  Douglas and. h  ³ 1 .67 sp ecic heat ratio C p /C v ³ 1 .67 sp ecic heat ratio C p /C v f (³ ) 0 .726661 T 0 5000 K gas. temp eratur e D sa 0 .8. mm sampler diamete r m 6 .6 · 10 23 g relativ e atomic mass P 0 10 5 Pa ICP pressure D sa 0 .8. mm sampler diameter M 39. g/mol relativ e molecular w eigh. t a 0 1317 .97 m/s sp eed. of sound in the. source T 0 5000 K gas. temp erature n 0 1 .5 · 10 18 cm ¿½'' 3 source densit y x 7. mm sampler to skimmer distance U 0 5 .4 · 10 20 atoms/s gas.
o w through the. sampler G 0 5 .6 · 10 20 atoms/s gas. o w through the. sampler D sk 0 .8. mm skimmer diame ter M sk 14 Mac. mm sampler to skimmer distance n sk 3 .0 · 10 15 cm ¿½'' 3 gas. densit y at the. skimmer P i 861 Pa impact pressure at the. skimmer v 1 .6 · 10 5 cm/s o w velo cit y D sk 0 .8. mm skimmer diameter U S 5 .1 · 10 18 atoms/s gas.
o w through the. skimmer G S 2 .5 · 10 18 atoms/s gas. o w through the. skimmer 28 Figure 4.9: Wide velocity distribution in the plasma compared to the nar- rower distribution in the supersonic jet . the region close to the skimmer there is a factor 2 between the two models results; this dierence is negligible since the gas ow probably depends on many other contributions - e.g. the analyte species, the essay disobeying nebulizer gas ow - that can signicantly aect the nal result. Regarding the sampler to skimmer distance, Douglas and French showed that the best arrangement corresponds to having the skimmer tip about. 2/3 of the way back to criticism assignment the onset of the Mach disk  . This result approximately agrees with the one obtained for the maximum intensity in the case of essay a neutral beam from Campargue expansion : XS = 0.125 D0 D0P0 »P1 1/3 (4.11) Even if here » is referred to as the mean free path inside the sampler orice, it has no particular subscript as it is expected to be nearly equal to the one for the gas outside the sampler in the ICP.
The skimmer protrudes into the zone of silence so that shock waves form behind the skimmer tip o the outside walls of the skimmer, as shown in literary assignment the sketch in Figure 4.10. With this conguration, the metal wall of the skimmer where the second shock wave begins is thick enough to conduct away the for 8th grade heat generated and the thin edge of metal at the skimmer tip remains stable. Otherwise, if the skimmer was located after the Mach disk, the sampled gas would be reheated by collisions with background gas in the Mach disk; this process would lead to the formation of a spherical white emitting region. The heat this way producted would be directly transferred to the skimmer tip, too thin to properly conduct the heat away; the result would be the melting or the literary rapid degradation of the skimmer tip . Calculation of the Knudsen number Kn, especially at the skimmer, is also instructive; it is to university, dened as the ratio of the mean free path » to criticism essay the 29 Figure 4.10: Eect of dierent sampler-skimmer distances. (a) Skimmer at normal position used for analysis. (b) Skimmer outside the zone of silence .
30 skimmer diameter DS: Kn = » DS (4.12) In the small scale Kn quanties the failure of the Navier-Stokes description: in fact this model corresponds to the collision-dominated transport limit of small Knudsen number Kn 1. More specically, in the presence of hy- drodynamic gradients in a homogeneous gas over lenghtscales characterized by Kn 1, the Chapman-Enskog expansion procedure can be applied to the governing kinetic (Boltzmann) equation to show that the gas response can be described by linear-gradient constitutive relations which lead to the Navier-Stokes description . Practically, the lower the Kn, the smaller the number of collisions is; Kn would have to be much less than unity (i.e. » DS ) for the beam to expand through the skimmer without collisions. The mean free path » can be expressed through the following relation, based on viscosity measurements and kinetic theory arguments : » = 16/5 µ nm q 2¿½'kT m = 16/5 µ n ¿½'' 2¿½'kT m (4.13) where n is the molecular number density, m the topic proposal particle mass and k the Boltzmann's constant. It is possible to refer to the viscosity coecient both with µ and ·. Niu and Houk report another relation for the Knudsen number: Kn = » DS = 1 1.414¿½'¿½'nDS (4.14) where ¿½' is the criticism essay gas kinetic cross section for Ar (4.1 · 10¿½''15 cm2). Transition For 8th Grade? The result obtained applying these two relations with the settings previously described are Kn = 0.3 and » = 0.2. These values are consistent with several articles    . The literature concerning supersonic expansions indicates that in this case two main disturbances are to be expected around the tip : a thin shock in front of the skimmer and perturbation of the straight line beam ow by collisions of the beam with atoms reected from the essay skimmer wall. Considering now the gas ow rate calculated for our particular case, the- oretically the total ion current at the base of the skimmer should be about.
0.4 mA; this result is consistent with several papers: for example, Gillson et al. , even if with a slightly dierent setting, calculated an ion current of. 1016 ions/second, corresponding to 1.5 mA. Frost Birches? This current has been calculated considering that through the skimmer passes only 2.6% of the central ow of the ICP. Considering the theoretical loss of analyte ions for assignment, Y, Chen and Houk calculated a transmission eciency from the graduate skimmer to the detector is 0.02%. As a consequence, the literary overall eciency of an ICP-MS is about. 5·10¿½''6 ; in essay other words, theoretically, for every 106 analyte ions in the central channel of the literary ICP, only ve ions reach the detector. As it will be explained later, this number is essay love, even lower in the reality. Through a comparison with a three-aperture ICP-MS interface, they deduced that many ions are lost between the skimmer tip and the ion optics or inside the ion optics itself. So 31 it is crucial to understand what happens in this region and how ions are lost. Chapter 6 is aimed to literary criticism simulate the region where particles y, including the skimmer and the rst lens (named extraction lens), in order to study and characterize the formed beam.
Resuming the work by Gillson et al., they repeated the ion current measurements8 with the same settings for a heavier ion (U+); the ux resulted higher. This phenomenon is called instrumental mass discrimination and has been deeply investigated (e.g., by Kivel et al. ), since it hampers accurate determination of of research absolute isotope ratios. In general, it consists in having at the spectrometer a stoichiometric composi- tion dierent from the one characterizing the original sample material. Criticism Essay Assignment? It has been reported that, typically, analyzing two isotopes, the cover for application graduate program heavier has a higher transport eciency: the literary dierence is about 10 ¿½'' 20% in transition essays the case of light elements and down to 1% for literary essay assignment, heavy elements. Of Research Proposal? Four main factors are at the base of mass discrimination: ¿½' sample introduction and ion generation; ¿½' collisions; ¿½' space charge eect; ¿½' energy-selective ion transmission. The rst and the last one are not studied in the present work, since it is limited to the region dened by the skimmer and the rst ion lens. As the plasma is quasi-neutral until the assignment starting of the frost essay skimmer, it's reason- able to assume that mass discrimination in the interface is mainly caused by collisions.
This hypothesis is consistent with the work by literary essay assignment, Taylor and essay stories love, Farnsworth : they found the absence of any space charge eect dur- ing the ion transfer from the source to the spectrometer. Essay Assignment? Moreover, for the present work, collisions have been considered a negligible contribution compared to space charge eect. As a consequence, mass discrimination upstream the skimmer has not been considered; the following investigation is limited to the region downstream the skimmer cone, up to the extraction lens.9 Resuming mass discrimination due to space charge eects, it can be explained by postulating that the frost essay ion beam within the skimmer is space charge limited: its density is so high that mutual repulsion will not allow the ions to remain tightly focused. Literary Criticism Essay? Since all ions have the same charge, they are subjected to the same force: as a consequence, lighter ions are de- focused (and then colliding on frost birches essay, the skimmer walls) much more readily than heavier ones. More than upstream, the literary criticism assignment space charge is considerable in the region downstream the japanese papers skimmer. In fact, according to the model by Douglas and French , plasma is sampled without signicant charge separation.10 8They used a stainless steel collector - situated 1 in. Criticism Essay Assignment? from the base at the skimmer - consisting of three concentric rings and a central circular stop.
9Study of mass discrimination after charge separation can be found elsewhere . 10In an alternate model, presented by Chambers et al., it is assumed that signicant charge separation occurs between the sampler and the skimmer; therefore the ion current through the skimmer would be signicantly less than that estimated in this work. 32 Behind the skimmer, where the beam expands, there are three main con- tributions to of research the loss of the ions: the essay assignment density decreasing - proportionally to narrative essay order 1/x2 (where x is the literary criticism essay distance from the japanese term skimmer) - as a consequence of the expansion, the beam spreading and the preferential loss of literary assignment electrons. This last phenomenon could be explained considering the Debye length »D; downstream of the skimmer »D is signicant compared to the dimensions of the beam and stories love, electrons are lost readily to the inner wall of the skimmer because their high mobility. Moreover, in assignment this stage, the electrostatic eld penetration from the extraction lens becomes signicant; as a consequence of these two eects, electrons leave a net axial positive space charge . Its signicance can be quantitatively described using the perveance P : P = I V 3/2 (4.15) where I is the total current and V the accelerating potential. P depends only on the geometry of the essay extractor and on the type of the particle . For a singly charged ion beam, space charge is negligible if P 10 ¿½''8 · (m ion/me) ¿½''1/2 (4.16) where mion and me are, respectively, the essay assignment mass of the term papers particle and of the electron. So, for Argon ions, the maximum perveance without signicant space charge eects is 3.7·10¿½''11. In the literary criticism assignment proximity of the skimmer P is equal to 1.9 · 10¿½''7 , which exceeds the maximum perveance by japanese term, more than a factor 5000. To obtain a rough estimate for the maximum electron current (for argon), it is possible to assume the literary criticism skimmer as a cylinder with diameter.
D and length L:11 Ie,max(A) = 38.6 · 10 ¿½''6V 3/2 D L 2 (4.17) The ion current is related to japanese term the electron one: Iion Ie = r me mion (4.18) therefore Iion,max(A) = 9.04 · 10 ¿½''7 r z mion V 3/2 D L 2 (4.19) As hinted before, another cause of losing ions is the rarefaction of the assignment beam as it travels farther from the skimmer tip. The Debye length in- creasing, by transition grade essays, virtue of its inverse square root dependence on the ion density, causes also the ions (not only the literary criticism essay electrons) spreading. So, to enhance the transmission eciency, the distance between the topic proposal skimmer tip and the ion optics has to criticism assignment be minimized. A substantial increase in transition for 8th ion signal was 11The diameter at the base of the skimmer is equal to its length; the average diameter of the skimmer is then about L/2 and the ratio D/L is about 0.5. 33 seen when this separation was reduced to 2.4 cm . Literary Criticism Essay? At this position, the mouth of the rst lens was only 5 mm from the nearest surface of the skimmer wall. Closer separations were tried, but the voltage output for transition for 8th, the rst lens became unstable, because of an electrical discharge between the ion lens and literary essay assignment, the skimmer wall or due to a high current ow to the lens. In the narrative disobeying Neptune MC-ICP-MS is the thickness of the literary criticism essay assignment separation valve limits the smaller distance between the skimmer and topic of research, the lens.
Table 4.2: Resume of the torch and the extraction interface operating pa- rameters Forward power 1350 W Guard electrode Grounded Gas ows: Cool 14.6 L/min Auxiliary 0.9 L/min Sample 0.8 L/min Make-up 0.3 ¿½'' 0.5 L/min Injector Sapphire (narrow bore) Spray chamber APEX HF Cones:12 Sampler Aluminium 0.9 mm Skimmer Aluminium 1.0 mm 12Custom design by PSI. 34 Chapter 5 IBSimu To simulate what happens during the beam extraction from the plasma source, an ion optical computer simulation package have been used, IBSimu. This software is designed especially for literary criticism essay assignment, the ion source community  and it is well suited for our particular aim because it is conceived for for application to university program, ion (both positive and assignment, negative) and electron plasma extraction. Papers? Its development started at LBNL in 2004 where it was used to design a slit-beam plasma extraction and nanosecond scale chopping for literary criticism essay assignment, pulsed neutron generator. Later, at grade, the University of Jyv¤skyl¤ (Finland), Department of Physics (JYFL), the code was made modular and suitable for many dierent types of problems. IBSimu has been documented and released with an open source license (it can be downloaded at: http://ibsimu.sourceforge.net/) and so it's well suited for use in the scientic community. It is used as a computer library through a C++ interface and it presents several peculiar advantages: ¿½' power and versatility; ¿½' customization and inclusion of new modules; ¿½' automation and batch processing; ¿½' incorporation of code in other software; ¿½' easiness of use (on the literary criticism assignment main site there are two tutorials http:// ibsimu.sourceforge.net/tutorial.html and the reference manual http://ibsimu.sourceforge.net/manual_1_0_5new_solver/index. Love? html); ¿½' possibility to criticism do the diagnostics from essay, code or with an interactive tool; ¿½' data exporting and visualization. The code is capable of solving electric elds in 1D, 2D (planar or cylin- drical symmetry) or full 3D simulation geometries and it can calculate rel- ativistic continuous wave or pulsed particle trajectories taking into account the space charge density. The starting point is the denition of the ge- ometry, where the simulation is assignment, done, and the electrodes (including the 35 Figure 5.1: Operational diagram for solving the Poisson problem. grounded interfaces), using a mathematical description. In order to calcu- late the electric potential, the cover to university graduate simulation domain is divided in square meshes with constant step size, which dimension can be specied in the geometry section of the code. So the eld where particles y is discretized: for each cell the Poisson's equation ¿½'' 2¿½' = ¿½'' 0 (5.1) is solved using nite dierence method (FDM) on the nodes of the mesh.
Then, the electrostatic potential is essay, calculated through a solver, using an words for 8th grade iterative approach (described in the following). The nite dierence representation for a vacuum node i is: ¿½'i¿½''1 ¿½'' 2¿½'i + ¿½'i+1 h2 = ¿½'' i. 0 (5.2) while Neumann (5.3) or Dirichlet (5.4) boundary conditions can be used for boundary nodes. ¿½''3¿½'i + 4¿½'i+1 ¿½'' ¿½'i+2 2h = d¿½' dx (5.3) ¿½'i = ¿½'const (5.4) To achieve smooth electric elds on the solid edges, the edge nodes within the solids are adjusted to criticism assignment virtual potentials using subnode information about the geometry: ²¿½'(x0 ¿½'' ±h) ¿½'' (± + ²)¿½'(x0) + ±¿½'(x0 + ²h) 1. 2 (± + ²)±²h 2 = ¿½'' (x0) 0 (5.5) On the narrative edges of the simulation domain, every solver supports Dirich- let and Neumann (rst and second order approximations) boundary condi- tions. The calculation can also include the generally accepted nonlinear plasma model for positive ion extraction; thermal background electrons of the criticism assignment plasma are modeled analytically in Poisson's equation (5.1) where. = ion ¿½'' e0 exp[(U ¿½'' Up)/(kTe/e)] and the plasma potential Up and the electron temperature Te are the model parameters. Ion charge density ion is calculated from japanese, beam current density and literary criticism assignment, electron charge density e0 is japanese, set to ion at plasma potential. The electric eld (needed for particle 36 trajectories) is obtained by numerical dierentiation and essay, interpolation of potential, using nine closest neighboring mesh nodes.
Then, the words code cal- culates the particles trajectory integrating the equations of motion, derived from Lorentz force, with adaptive Runge-Kutta Cash-Karp (fourth and fth order) algorithm. In 2D and with a null magnetic eld: dx dt = vx dy dt = vy dvx dt = ax = q m Ex dvy dt = ay = q m Ey This method has an automatic step-size adjustment for required trajec- tory accuracy. The implementation of the literary criticism assignment Runge-Kutta algorithm is used from the GNU Scientic Library. As the CPU available was multicore and the particle tracer is multithreaded, for a high eciency calculation eleven cores were used for ying particles and one for stories, the potential determination. The particle tracer algorithm nds all the meshes the criticism essay trajectory passes through and deposits the charge of the particle on the four (eight in 3D) surrounding mesh nodes.
The same procedure checks for collisions in the mesh square. Narrative Essay Disobeying Order? The code in Appendix A was the starting point in my work; to literary criticism essay assignment under- stand the extraction process and to optimize the fundamental parameters (Up and Te), I changed some parts of it, as it will be explained in the next chapter. Hereinafter there is a description of the main operations done by this rst code. After including all libraries needed (most of them have been written by Taneli Kalvas), some denitions are present: the number of topic of research iterations, the rst lens acceleration voltage V acc, the literary criticism essay plasma potential. Up, the electron temperature of the plasma Te, the number of japanese particles per species n_particles and literary essay, the kinetic factor Ekin_factor (KF ). The last one is for 8th grade essays, given by the ratio between the kinetic energy KE and the mass m; it is dened in literary criticism essay this way in stories love order to literary assignment be equal for all the particles, regardless of their mass (in fact they are sent with a given velocity, not energy). Cover? To have the kinetic factor in eV/amu it has been used the following equation: KF [ eV/amu] = 1.66 · 10¿½''8 3.2 v 2 (5.6) where v is in m/s. Following the code, a rst array is dened to list the masses of the simulated ions in addition to Argon and another one is for essay assignment, the beam current (in µA). In the section Output denitions it is possible to set (through boolean variables) what to print during the compiling and at the end of the 37 code: debug and verbose provide some status information, the GTK plot represents the trend of both the electric potential and space charge error and cover letter for application graduate, plotting produces several les (it will be explained in detail later). Before starting the geometry section, the function fname is dened; it is used in literary essay the plotting phase, to print the name of the dierent les produced in it.
Then, in the geometry section, the skimmer, the interface and the ex- traction lens are dened, using a cylindrical simmetry: only the essay upper part is described and then, through a mirror function on x axis, the electric eld in the lower part is literary essay assignment, obtained. In this section the mesh dimension - really important in the next chapter - is frost, also dened. After the literary criticism assignment insertion in disobeying the geometry of the solid objects, boundary conditions are setted: at the edges of x and y (numbers from criticism assignment, 1 to 4) they are of Neumann type, while for the user dened electrode (7 and 8) they are of topic Dirichlet type. At this point the initialization of the literary criticism essay plasma and of the solver takes place: since several nonlinear solvers are available, the rst task was to words for 8th grade essays decide which one was more tting our requirements (see section 6.1). The Argon charge density is calculated and the particles are setted to be mirrored along the x axis. Thus it is possible to start the iteration loop.
This is necessary since there are two contributions to criticism essay the electric potential: the accelerating voltage (usually. ¿½''2000 V) of the ion lens and proposal, the space charge of the ying particles. As this second factor depends on the particles trajectories, which in literary essay turn are determined by the total electric potential, an iterative approach has been adopted. The number of japanese term iterations can be set in the beginning of the code: const uint n _iter = 21 Then the literary criticism essay i index spaces in cover for application program the range 0 · niter in criticism order to reach the convergence. In the following a brief explanation of the proposal operations executed in every cycle is provided: i = 0 : In the rst iteration the electric potential is calculated taking into account the criticism essay assignment electrodes contribute only, i.e. for = 0. After computing the electric eld, particles are sent. i = 1 : As particles are now present, space charge is calculated and essay, set as a variable in literary assignment the plasma model; in fact, with IBSimu, plasma is a function of space charge , electron temperature Te and plasma potential Up. Then electric potential (and subsequently electric eld) is transition, recalculated, now as a function of both electrodes and ying particles. As the charge density only literary criticism essay, changes passing from the rst to of research the second iteration, plasma is calculated only in this step; there is no need to essay assignment recalculate it in the other steps. For i ¿½'¿½ 2: The potential and eld are recalculated and so are the frost particle trajectories, until both electric potential and space charge converge - i.e. Literary Criticism Assignment? until the dierence for these two parameters between two iteration is nearly zero.
There are dierent function to letter to university program produce particles, depending on which beam parameters are known: 1. add_2d_beam_with_energy (uint32_t N, double J, double q, double m, double E, double Tp, double Tt, double x1, double y1, double x2, double y2) 38 2. add_2d_beam_with_velocity (uint32_t N, double J, double q, dou- ble m, double v, double dvp, double dvt, double x1, double y1, double x2, double y2) 3. add_2d_KV_beam_with_emittance (uint32_t N, double I, double q, double m, double a, double b, double e, double Ex, double x0, double y0) 4. Criticism Essay Assignment? add_2d_gaussian_beam_with_emittance (uint32_t N, double I, dou- ble q, double m, double a, double b, double e, double Ex, double x0, double y0) where N is the number of particles, J the beam current density (A/m2), q the charge of cover beam particle (in multiples of e) and m the mass (u). Literary Criticism Assignment? For the rst two functions, the beam is dened on a line from (x1, y1) to (x2, y2) and it propagates into a direction 90¿½'¿½ clockwise from the direction of vector pointing from (x1, y1) to (x2, y2); at the beginning the beam prole is uniform. Birches? For the rst function E represents the literary criticism essay beam energy (in eV ), while Tp and Tt are the parallel and transverse temperature, respectively, in eV. Essay? The particle speeds in direction i are sampled from a gaussian distribution with standard deviation dvi = p(Ti · e/m), where Ti is the beam temper- ature in literary criticism direction i (eV), e is the electron charge (C) and m is the mass of the ion (kg). With the third function, particles are own in the positive. x -direction from a starting location (center point) dened by (x0, y0) and the beam spread in the projectional space is made according to KV/hard- edged (Kapchinsky-Vladimirsky) distribution. I represents the beam total current (in A) and Ex the starting energy of the beam (in eV). The beam is made to of research proposal match Twiss parameters ± (a) and ² (b) in essay assignment projectional direction (y,y'). The rms-emittance of the essay beam is made to match rms (e). After iterating trajectories (through a special object), electric potential and space charge are recorded in the convergence.dat le; at the end of the criticism simulation process this le can be found in the same folder where the source code is. If setted true in the beginning, it starts the last phase, the essay stories plotting one; this is the list of all the plots produced: ¿½' particle traces in literary essay the geometry eld; ¿½' zoom of papers particle traces in the range 0 ¿½'' 1 mm (the zone including the skimmer and literary, the focus point); ¿½' electric potential as a function of x, usually a curve starting near 0 (the skimmer is essay stories love, grounded but there is the plasma potential contribution) and ending at literary, ¿½''2000 V (the lens voltage); ¿½' a 3D plot representing the electric potential as a function of x and y in transition words for 8th essays the skimmer region; ¿½' emittance at 50 mm, as a function of y and the angle y0, reporting the values of ±, ², ³ and ; 39 ¿½' charge density (in C/m3) as a function of x; it is maximum at the beginning - at the skimmer tip -, then rapidly drops to zero, with a peak in correspondence to the focus point; ¿½' space charge as a function of x and criticism, y in birches the skimmer region; ¿½' kinetic energies (in eV) of assignment ying particles, in a scatter plot, as a func- tion of particles mass; ¿½' signal intensity, in arbitrary units, for each mass, at 8, 50 and 56 mm; ¿½' beam prole histogram plot at 4 and 50 mm; ¿½' a scatter plot for the beam prole, representing the y value as a func- tion of the japanese papers particles mass, both at 50 and 56 mm.
40 Chapter 6 Simulation 6.1 Task 1 - solver. The rst task was to nd and compare the dierent available solvers, in literary assignment order to nd out which one is the fastest. Of Research Proposal? With this aim, the computing time for 1 and 2 iterations has been determined, using one thread only and considering an Argon beam with 20k particles, a beam current of literary criticism essay 1 mA and narrative disobeying order, a mesh size equal to literary criticism 100 µm. The outcome of this comparison is the topic proposal bar plot in Figure 6.1. As it can be seen, the UMFPACKSolver is the fastest. Moreover this solver can also use multi-thread; this feature makes the UMFPACKSolver the more suitable;1 accordingly, it was used throughout the entire project. 6.2 Task 2 - computing time vs mesh size.
As explained in the previous chapter, to literary criticism essay assignment calculate the electric potential and stories love, the charge density, IBSimu divides the simulation domain in small cells, with uniform size: for each cell UMFPACKSolver solves the problem, i.e. Criticism? Poisson's dierential equation, and returns a value. Cover Letter For Application Program? So the mesh size has a large eect on the quality of the approximation: the smaller the mesh size, the higher the quality of the simulation is (down to the limit of mesh_size ¿½'' 0, representing the exact solution of the problem). The trouble is that it is impossible to literary essay decrease the proposal mesh size innitely. The limits are the available memory (with 8967201 nodes - equivalent to a 10 µm mesh size - the system reports a memory allocation error) and the computing time. Literary Essay Assignment? In fact, the higher the number of nodes, the longer is the time needed to solve the problem. Cover Letter For Application To University Graduate? So it is useful to nd a compromise to solve the problem with a good approximation and in criticism essay a relatively short time. The relation between computation time and mesh size was investigated for mesh sizes in the range of 15 ¿½'' 300 µm.
In Table 6.1 and Figure 6.2 the data are given and words for 8th grade essays, plotted for literary assignment, a 20k particles Argon beam, with a current beam of 20 mA and 41 iterations. 1Twelve threads were available on the computer used. 41 Figure 6.1: Computing time for stories love, dierent solvers. Table 6.1: Computing time for dierent mesh sizes mesh (µm) no of nodes time (s) 300 10197 77.85 250 14625 97.61 200 22761 131.92 150 40303 163.45 100 90321 259.35 50 359841 619.59 40 561801 853.01 30 997957 1343.57 25 1436481 2021.08 20 2243601 3608.08 15 3987023 8676.87 42 Figure 6.2: Computing time as a function of the number of nodes. It seems that the data points plotted have 2 dierent trends: the rst data can be tted with a root function, then (from the 50 µm mesh) the literary criticism data can be tted with really good approximation through a square function. The functions used to t the two curves are respectively y = a · (1 + x) b (Figure 6.3) and essay stories, y = A + B · x + C · x2 (Figure 6.4); (6.1) for literary criticism essay assignment, the rst curve a = 0.32399, b = 0.59039, for the second curve A = 390.06724 , B = 6.03498 · 10¿½''4 and C = 3.71075 · 10¿½''10. As the adjusted R2 are, respectively, 0.99772 and 0.99998 these could be considered good ts. Essay Order? As explained before, the literary criticism essay mesh size has an impact on the quality of the results: a too large mesh could lead to a simulation not well representing the reality. In Figures 6.5 and 6.6 beam proles at 50 mm for dierent mesh sizes are plotted; this trend has been used as judging parameter to topic of research proposal test the quality of the results. Literary? A brief description of the beam prole evolution from the nest mesh to the coarser one is provided, comparing each one with the former. Because 15 µm is the smallest mesh size that can be used, the 15 µm prole has been taken as the plot which best represents the beam prole.
All the letter for application to university other plots, obtained increasing the mesh size, will be compared to this one. The main task is to reach a good compromise between the beam representation quality and the computing time: it is literary essay assignment, useful to letter for application graduate program nd a minimum number of nodes which would guarantee a good nal result to attain the literary time optimization. Of Research? In the literary criticism following (through a dierent geometry) the beam prole was tted with a nonlinear function, taken from the models 43 Figure 6.3: Fit for the rst six points plotted in Figure 6.2. Figure 6.4: Fit for the second part of the data plotted in Figure 6.2. 44 Figure 6.5: Beam proles for mesh sizes between 15 and birches essay, 50 µm. Figure 6.6: Beam proles for mesh sizes between 100 and literary essay, 300 µm. 45 available in Origin. Narrative Disobeying? Before starting the analysis it is important to underline that every plot is symmetrical due to literary criticism essay the applied geometry: the code creates only the upper half of the simulation eld (i.e. the transition words grade essays interfaces and the lens) and then it reects all the elements through a mirror function.
Considering the rst four beam proles (mesh sizes from 15 to 30 µm) one can note that there are no meaningful dierences: increasing the mesh size in this range the beam prole is unaected. As there are small dierences, the number of counts could be considered constant: the dierence between the criticism 15 µm and the 30 µm plot counts is disobeying, less than 0.2%. On the contrary, increasing the mesh size to 40 µm, considerable dierences appear: even if the total number of counts is nearly equal, the curve clearly shows an atypical evolution when approximating to the center. A sharp increase occurs in the very central range: the percentual dierence between the number of counts at 0.25 mm and assignment, the one at 0.75 mm is about 22%. Further increasing the mesh size the result becomes more pronounced: the frost total number of counts decreases (till the dierence with the nest mesh is greater than 31% - for criticism essay, the 300 µm mesh) and topic proposal, also the shape changes. In the 100 µm plot there is a very high central peak (the ratio between this peak and the 15 µm peak is more than 1.5), so the trend is literary essay, already much dierent. Topic? Considering coarser approximations, the outer peaks trend becomes more uniform, while the central one broadens and then splits in two dierent peaks (in the 300 µm histogram the central counts number is very low). In short, large mesh sizes produce unrealistic results and have to criticism essay assignment be avoided.
In conclusion the best compromise between quality and computing time is represented by disobeying order, the 30 µm mesh. As it has been shown before, approxi- mately 22 minutes are requested for this geometry (for a 20k particles Argon beam with a current of 20 mA and 41 iterations). Furthermore, the space charge density was calculated (data not shown). With increasing mesh size, almost nothing changes close to the skimmer orice. But a peak between. 0.01 and 0.02 m - where the beam is focused - decreases when larger mesh sizes, until it disappears at 50 µm. The ratios between the peak height for three medium meshes, 30 µm, 40 µm and 50 µm, and the smaller mesh used are 60%, 48% and 40%, respectively. Looking for a compromise, the former choice of a 30 µm mesh size can be considered a good solution.
6.3 Task 3 - full 2D geometry switching. As the 2D mirrored geometry could not be considered a good representation of the simulation area (some troubles arise for particles traveling on literary, the x axis), the third task was to modify the code in order to dene a 2D full geometry. This conguration is not using the mirror function anymore, as the interfaces and the lens are completely dened. After the switch to this new geometry, some simulations were run in topic proposal order to compare the new computing time with the former one. Table 6.2 shows the time for both geometries. Criticism? It is important to underline that with the same mesh size the full geometry has a doubled number of nodes with respect to essay the mirror 46 Table 6.2: Computing time for 2D mirror and full 2D geometry 2D mirror full 2D mesh (µm) no of nodes time (s) no of literary essay assignment nodes time (s) time ratio 300 9956 77.85 24889 161.90 2.0 250 14336 97.61 35840 211.69 2.1 200 22400 131.92 56000 292.98 2.1 150 39822 163.45 99556 385.92 2.3 100 89600 259.35 224000 620.14 2.3 50 358400 619.59 896000 1493.79 2.4 40 560000 853.01 1400000 2164.20 2.5 30 995556 1343.57 2488889 4239.65 3.1 25 1433600 2021.08 3584000 7784.64 3.8 one, because the electrodes and the simulation eld are dened in the lower part too.
These values are referred to a 20k particles Argon beam, with a beam current of 10 mA and 41 iterations. The last column displays the ratio between the time taken by the full 2D geometry and the 2D mirror. Cover Letter For Application To University Graduate Program? The data ouput was used to evaluate the beam prole for the smaller mesh sizes (50 µm, 40 µm, 30 µm and 25 µm). The dierence between the full 2D and the 2D mirror beam proles gets obvious: they are no more com- pletely symmetrical, because particles are sent randomly. The member func- tion used in these rst simulations was add_2d_KV _beam_with_emittance(). It adds a 2D beam with dened KV emittance (KV stands for literary criticism assignment, Kapchinsky- Vladimirsky, whose distribution is used for the beam spread in the projec- tional space). It becomes clear that the perfect beam symmetry could be achieved only with a large number of particles. Analyzing the number of counts in the two sections (the left and the right one) of each plot, it results that the frost birches essay percentual dierence is less than 1%; moreover the bias is anti correlated to the mesh size: 0.54% for 25 µm, 0.45% for 30 µm, 0.27% for. 40 µm, 0.09% for 50 µm. In order to compare the beam prole obtained with the two dierent geometries, one simulation with a 100k particles Ar- gon beam, with a current of 10 mA and a 30 µm mesh size was used. The comparison with the corresponding 2D mirror result is displayed in Figure 6.7.
The dierences can be summarized in the following way: rst of assignment all, even if the trend at the edge is similar, the midmost increasing is larger in the full 2D case. Topic? Moreover, the number of central counts is criticism assignment, much higher in the full 2D case: the ratio between the peak heights is about 1.2 and the percentual dierence of the transition for 8th grade total number of counts between 2D mirror and full 2D curve is about 19%. This result shows the importance to switch to criticism the new geometry; in essay love fact it clearly proves that the mirror 2D case was aected by some errors in the trajectories calculation for particles in the center of the beam, the region we are mostly interested in. Finally, some attempts have been done to t the full 2D beam prole 47 Figure 6.7: 2D mirror - full 2D beam prole @ 50 mm comparison. Criticism Essay? (using the data obtained with the 30 µm mesh) with a known distribution: as the Gauss t had a R2 adjusted of only 0.99134, it has been chosen a Lorentzian t, obtaining a better result (R2 adjusted = 0.9963). This t is term papers, displayed in literary criticism Figure 6.8. Olney, Chen and Douglas  measured gas ow proles downstream the topic of research skimmer using an impact pressure probe. It consisted of a small 0.254 mm diameter orice in a at assignment, plate at the end of a 6.35 mm od tube that was connected to a pressure gauge. The gas ow proles were measured for an interface arrangement with a rst stage pressure (P1) of 3.3 Torr and a sampler-skimmer spacing of 6.4 mm; this interface is similar to that used on commercial ICP-MS systems.
Using French calculations , they found the density o the centerline: n(r, ¿½') n0 = B cos 2 ¿½'¿½' 2C r r0 ¿½''2 (6.2) where ¿½' is the polar angle between the centre axis and for 8th essays, the point of interest, r0 the orice radius, r the criticism assignment distance of the probe from the source (r2 = x2 p +z 2 p , where zp is the distance of the cover to university graduate program probe from the centerline) and B and C are, respectively, 0.643 and 1.365 (for Ar). The impact probe was scanned radially across the beam at criticism assignment, 13 mm down- stream the skimmer; Figure 6.9 shows the free jet gas ow prole obtained from narrative disobeying, impact pressure measurements made at several distances from the criticism centerline. Considering the geometry and settings dierences between the case on study and the work by Olney, Chen and Douglas, the beam prole obtained with IBSimu is consistent with the one shown in their work. 48 Figure 6.8: Lorentz t. Figure 6.9: Free jet proles calculated - dotted line - and measured - lled circles; the density eld of love equation 6.2 is multiplied by an additional factor. cos¿½' to account for assignment, the decrease in the apparent area of the probe (solid angle) viewed from the source orice as the transition for 8th grade essays probe moves o-axis . 49 6.4 Task 4 - Up and Te investigation. The optimum mesh size for criticism essay, a mirrored geometry was determined to be 30 µm.
Since with a full 2D geometry the number of nodes doubles, some simulations have been done to see if a mesh bigger than 30 µm guarantees good results. It has been found that using a 50 µm mesh the beam prole does not change; so for the following task, this mesh size has been used. Love? The aim was to analyze the eect of plasma potential (Up) and criticism essay assignment, electron temperature (Te) on the beam prole. These parameters have been chosen because they dene the topic plasma itself and they represent the literary criticism main contribu- tion to the particles trajectories. After few simulations it became clear that it was necessary to change the frost particle seeding function; we soon realized that add_2d_KV _beam_with_emittance() did not take into account the charge density and it was initializing the plasma potential to a Null value (no dierences were seen varying the plasma potential). However, the beam proles calculated in the former task were correct, because with such a high current beam the space charge eect was signicant. So, the new used function was add_2d_beam_with_energy(), which adds particles with kinetic energies sampled from a gaussian distribution. Unfortunately, it was not possible with this new function to set a beam current greater than 5 µA; for higher values, particles are grouped in bundles (needless to say that this result can not be true). So, with a 100k particles Argon beam, a current of 5 µA and 21 iterations (after having checked the con- vergence) some runs have been done with dierent plasma potential values: 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 8, 10, 15 and essay assignment, 20 V. The outcome beam prole does not have any signicative dierence until 1 V, then, increasing the plasma po- tential, the number of counts and the peak height decrease. Moreover, above.
10 V all plots are almost identical, both in term shape and criticism essay, number of counts; as a consequence it does not make sense to investigate low or high intervals and the study was concentrated on of research, the range 2 ¿½'' 10 V. This interval of survey is in a good agreement with the available literature data . The trend shown in Figure 6.10 is literary essay assignment, probably due to the space charge eect: it becomes more intense with a higher potential, especially in frost essay the center of the beam, where the number of particles is literary criticism essay assignment, high. So, increasing. Up, more and love, more particles are lost on literary criticism essay, the skimmer walls; in a calculation for 10 V, this number could be near to 80% of the total number of starting particles. With a low plasma potential value, some particles are colliding on the skimmer wall too, but this number is smaller - with Up = 2 V it is about 40% - because the beam is spreading less than in the case of high Up. Regarding the charge density plot, its trend does not change. The only dierence is in the peak corresponding to the focus point: its height halves from 2 to 6 V and then remains constant until 10 V. In conclusion of the plasma potential evaluation, one can say that the sharpest beam proles are achieved at essay love, lowest potential, in particular at Up = 2 V. A similar study has been conducted for the electron temperature, be- tween 2000 and 8000 K (corresponding to 0.259 and 1.035 eV, respectively, using the equipartition theorem). Criticism? The number of publications inquiring this 50 Figure 6.10: Beam proles for Te = 5000 K and dierent plasma potentials. topic is considerable ; the cover graduate program reported values range between. 1000 and 16000 K, depending on many factors (distance from the load coil, radial position, dry or wet plasma, introduced analyte and radio frequency power setting). The results for dierent plasma potentials (summarized in Figures 6.11 and 6.12) show a dierent behaviour. At low Up, increasing the electron temperature results in a rise of counts at the boundaries and a decrease in the center.
Probably due to a greater thermal agitation, the beam prole becomes smoother (this attening is more uniform than the one obtained increasing Up). On the contrary, if the criticism essay assignment potential is high the plot is words essays, already at assignment, and by varying the temperature nothing changes. Japanese? The best solution would be having a sharp peak (like the one obtained for the lower temperature) with a high number of counts (as it happens for literary essay, high Te). So choosing the best electron temperature is narrative disobeying, not easy: both 2000 and 8000 K could be considered good solutions. In the literary charge density plot, increasing the electron temperature, the peak corresponding to the focus point moves slightly toward the skimmer, while its intensity increases and the full width half maximum (FWHM) gets smaller. These changes are small, so they could be neglected. The best conguration would be a focus point far away from the cover letter for application to university graduate skimmer, in literary essay assignment order to minimize the space charge eect. Essay? In order to better understand how the plasma potential and the electron temperature aect the simulation and, above all, to nd the combination that gives the best result, three 3D plots have been done, representing the total number of counts, the peak height and the FWHM as a function of the two fundamental parameters. The results are depicted in Figures 6.13 51 Figure 6.11: Beam proles for criticism assignment, Up = 2 V and dierent electron temperatures. Figure 6.12: Beam proles for Up = 6 V and dierent electron temperatures. 52 Figure 6.13: Number of counts as a function of Up and Te. to 6.15.
As evaluated before, it was shown that Up = 2 V is the transition for 8th best plasma potential. Regarding the electron temperature, two dierent values could be good: with Te = 2000 K the peak is narrow (lowest FWHM) and his height is maximum. Literary Assignment? On the letter for application to university program other hand, with Te = 8000 K there is still a good FWHM and the number of literary assignment counts is increased. The good quality of these two combinations (Up = 2 V - Te = 2000 K and Up = 2 V - Te = 8000 K) is underlined in the plot represented in Figure 6.16, obtained with a combination between number of counts and FWHM. From the literature review it can be postulated that 2000 K is a too low value for the present case.
In fact the electron temperature in words a Fassel torch is around 10000 K and the plasma bulk properties remain unchanged as it proceeds through the sampling orice ; the only signicant electron loss at the walls of the sampling plate is conned to distances of the literary criticism essay assignment order of one Debye length - 10¿½''2 to 10¿½''3 mm. In conclusion for the next simulations the japanese term following values were adopted: Up = 2 V and Te = 8000 K. 6.5 Task 5 - dierent masses. Once completed the Argon beam simulations, the next step was to intro- duce other particles, to see the particles beam prole. Since the plasma is constituted by Argon, the number of the literary criticism assignment other masses is so low that their contribution to narrative order the electric potential is nearly negligible. Assignment? So, to speed up the simulation, it was convenient to simulate only Argon in the rst runs 53 Figure 6.14: Peak height as a function of Up and Te. Figure 6.15: Full width half maximum as a function of essay Up and Te. 54 Figure 6.16: (number of counts)2 / full width half maximum. (to calculate the resulting electric potential) and then, in the last part, all the other particles. This topic will be discussed in detail in the next section.
The rst set of simulations was aimed to study how the number of counts is literary criticism, aected by the mass of the projectile at dierent potentials. The array of particles used (excluding Ar) was: 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 60, 80, 100, 140, 180, 220 , 260, 300 amu. 100k particles per species were seeded, with a 50 µm mesh, Te = 8000 K and for dierent plasma potentials: 2, 3, 4, 6, 10 V. The signal intensity per species, downstream the lens orice, is given in Figure 6.17. Of Research? The trend obtained is logarithmic for criticism essay, each potential, even if with in- creasing Up the curves are attening. A good t has been found: the curve.
y = a¿½''b·ln(x+c) always provides R2 adjusted greater than 0.999. Words For 8th Grade? Compar- ing the plot in Figure 6.17 with the one obtained at 50 mm (just before the lens orice) and shown in criticism essay assignment Figure 6.18 clearly indicates that a lot of essay particles are lost on the lens walls, as the maximum intensity halves. Moreover, the most intense lost is for criticism assignment, low mass particles: considering the essay intensity ratio between 50 and 56 mm, it passes from 7.57 for literary criticism essay, m=1 to 3.87 for essay, m=100 to 2.08 for m=300. This could mean that lower masses are mostly at literary, the boundary of the beam - whilst higher masses are in the centre - or that the spread is higher for light particles - making the of research prole nearly at. In the following this particular distribution was studied through the criticism assignment beam prole plots. Considering instead the signal intensity per species for dierent electron temperatures, the curves are not aected and the intensity dierence is nearly negligible (see Figure 6.19). Increasing the electron temperature, the 55 Figure 6.17: Signal intensity per mass @ 56 mm for Te = 8000 K and dierent plasma potentials.
Figure 6.18: Signal intensity per of research mass @ 50 mm for criticism essay assignment, Te = 8000 K and dierent plasma potentials. 56 Figure 6.19: Signal intensity per words for 8th grade mass @ 56 mm for Up = 2 V and dierent electron temperatures. number of counts also increases, in a non linear way: higher the mass, bigger the dierence from two dierent temperatures is. Literary Criticism Assignment? Nevertheless the gap is quite small: for m=300, the percentual dierence between 5000 and 12000 K (in respect to the lower Te) is about 6. The eect of an electron temperature changing on grade essays, the number of literary criticism essay counts for m=300 is shown in cover to university graduate program Figure 6.20. In order to see in detail how plasma potential and electron temper- atures aect the beam prole, some simulations have been run with the three masses (in addition to literary criticism essay Ar) which give an overall view on all possible particles: 1, 150, 300. The result is consistent with the one obtained in case of Argon: it validates 2 V as the best plasma potential and the trend for dierent Te is equivalent to the one showed in the previous section. As it resulted from signal intensity plots, the number of counts for lower masses is low. Running the same number of particles would make a comparison between beam proles of mass 1 and 300 impossible: the former one would be completely at compared to the other. Narrative Essay Disobeying Order? As the criticism beam prole evolution (changing Up and narrative essay disobeying, Te) is the same for mass 40, 150 and 300, it is reasonable to presume this trend is identical for mass 1. The beam prole was studied in literary criticism essay assignment detail for dierent electron temperatures (Figure 6.21). As it is shown for m=150, increasing Te, the central peak decreases and broadens until 6000 K, then, it starts increasing again. Moreover, while its central width does not change, the boundary number of counts progressively decreases and so the transition from the boundary to the centre becomes sharper (the area under the curve being constant). The only of research, dierence with 57 Figure 6.20: Signal intensity @ 56 mm for m = 300 and criticism essay assignment, dierent electron temperatures.
Figure 6.21: Beam prole @ 50 mm for Up = 2 V, m = 150 and essay, dierent electron temperatures. 58 Figure 6.22: Beam prole @ 50 mm for dierent masses, for Up = 2 V and. Te = 8000 K. Literary Criticism Essay Assignment? argon is right in this area: in the analyzed case the boundary number of japanese term papers counts drops to zero (this feature is even more noticeable for m=300) at about 4 mm from the centre, giving to the prole a more sharp shape. This phenomenon has been more deeply investigated. With a set of projectile similar to the one used for the rst plots, the criticism assignment beam prole for each species has been represented - for Up = 2 V and. Te = 8000 K. For low masses it was necessary to run more particles in order to have a good statistics. Especially in this plot the mass discrimination is obvious: most of the low species are lost on the skimmer and lens walls, so their contribute is about one order of magnitude smaller for high masses. As observed before the beam prole progressively changes: while Argon (previously studied) can be tted with a lorentzian curve, increasing the mass, the prole loses its tails and acquires a better dened shape.
Starting from m = 160, the boundary number of counts drops to japanese term zero; in other words, high masses are well focused. Criticism? This is an important result, because it means that all these particles will pass through the lens orice. Essay Stories Love? To better visualize the results it was convenient to represent the beam prole ratio between a given mass and mass 120. This value was choosen because its curve is the rst having nearly zero counts at the edge. As in the analyzer enters just the central part of the beam, high boundary ratios were not take into account. The plot in Figure 6.23 clearly shows the mass discrimination as a function of atomic mass and radius (radial distance from the beam center - dened as 0.02 m). This plot underlines how much sharper the beam proles are for high 59 Figure 6.23: Counts ratio @ 50 mm for Up = 2 V and literary essay, Te = 8000 K. masses: it is important to notice that the resulting hollow for disobeying order, low masses does not mean the total number of counts in the center is lower than at the boundaries, but just that the number of criticism essay assignment counts is increasing slower (to the centre) for low than for high masses. 6.6 Task 6 - iteration settings. As anticipated, with many projectiles it is papers, convenient to split the iteration phase in two parts: in literary criticism assignment the initial runs only stories love, Argon is seeded, while in the last all the other particles (dened in the masses array) are added. In fact the one that contributes more to the total electric potential is literary assignment, Argon, while other particles have a negligible impact on it. Some simulations have been run to words grade essays answer the following questions: ¿½' With a xed number of iterations, does the beam prole change vary- ing the number of initial and nal iterations' How' Is the computing time aected' ¿½' How many particles are needed to y in the last run(s) in order to have a good compromise between a good beam prole and a short computing time' ¿½' How many particles are optimal for the rst runs' The rst comparison was aimed to see which changes occur when the number of iterations in which all particles are sent vary.
With a xed 60 Figure 6.24: Electric potential dierence as a function of iteration number for the analyzed cases. number of essay assignment total iterations (25), dierent combinations have been tried: (case 1) 10+15, (case 2) 15+10, (case 3) 23+2, (case 4) 24+1. The rst parameter checked was the electric potential convergence: in Figure 6.24 the electric potential dierence is shown for japanese, the considered cases. There are two points that have to be underlined: (i) the y axis has a logarithmic scale - this means that the initial decrease is sharp - and (ii) in case4 the electric potential dierence is essay assignment, not calculated after ying all parti- cles - because in the code the particles are sent after the electrical potential is recalculated. 2 The increase in essay each curve is due to the addition of other species: considering that the total electric potential is literary criticism essay, 2000 V, this oper- ation does not signicantly aect the result. To validate this hypothesis, the obtained beam proles have been compared to the one obtained in the rst case.
With 15 + 10 iterations the result is identical (exactly the same number of counts per interval) to the rst one, while case 3 and 4 have some small dierences, even if the prole shape remains unchanged. Cover Letter Program? As the com- puting time decreases from 34 (case1) to 29 (case2) to 19 minutes (case4), the literary essay conclusion is the following: reducing the transition grade number of nal iterations does not signicantly aect the nal result; the dierence is negligible in all cases even for particles with low mass - in which case the total number of counts is low. This result has been validated also in literary assignment the case of 20k particles in the rst runs and 100k in japanese term the last one. Then, two simulations with a dierent nal number of particles have been performed: 50k and 100k. For low masses (m=1 in the analyzed 2So case4 represents the convergence for Ar only. Assignment? 61 Figure 6.25: Ratio between the beam prole @ 50 mm with 50k particles and essay, the one obtained with 100k particles, for m=1. case) the number of particles reaching the end of the literary criticism essay assignment simulation eld is low and random uctuations aect signicantly the beam prole. As the essay love uctuation amplitude does not change passing from the rst to the second case, the literary criticism essay assignment former one represents a coarse approximation (as clearly indicated in Figure 6.25). Increasing the atomic mass the number of japanese papers counts increases too and essay, the background noise becomes negligible. So it is better to split the following discussion in two cases. Transition Words Essays? For high masses the solution is likewise the prece- dent: running with 50k instead of 100k particles is a good approximation and the advantage is that the simulation time is reduced - halved in the case of 10 + 15 iterations.
To see how much time is earned running less particles in the last run only, two simulations have been done, with 50k particles at the beginning and 50/100 in the last run. The dierence is about 15%, but is literary assignment, not really signicant as the total time needed is around 20 minutes (19 min in term papers the rst case and 22 min in the second). The situation is critical for low masses: running few particles in the last run(s) does not provide a good statistics. Therefore, it is convenient to run more particles (in the last run only), even if it takes a bit more time, to have a better statistic. To conclude this study, the last parameter to change was the number of particles in the rst runs: 3 the criticism simulation result for 20k particles was compared to the one obtained for frost essay, 50k - with 100k particles in the last runs 3A variation in literary essay the number of Argon particles does not change the total charge density (it is dened as constant); the only quantity changing is the charge density carried by each particle. Topic Proposal? 62 - rstly for literary essay, 10 + 15 and letter for application graduate, then for 24 + 1 iterations. In both cases there are no dierences between the two simulations - for criticism essay, the case 10 + 15 iterations every single beam has the same amplitude as in the other case and similarly for 24 + 1 iterations. In the rst case even the computing time does not importantly change, probably because the time needed to seed only of research, Argon is smaller compared to the one for all particles.
On the contrary, the dierence is criticism assignment, notable in the second case: instead of 22, just 14 minutes are needed. Anyway, it is important to underline that this is not a general result: sending more species, the time needed for the last iteration will increase, while the time for Argon does not change. So the topic of research percentual time earned will decrease with the total number of literary criticism assignment species increasing. Graduate? Anyhow decreasing the number of Argon particles does not aect the beam prole quality, so it can be reduced to 20k. The following list summarizes the settings that optimize both the results quality and the computing time: ¿½' number of iterations: 24 + 1; ¿½' number of particles in the last run: 100k; ¿½' number of particles in literary criticism essay the rst runs: 20k. 6.7 Task 7 - Cadmium. In order to transition for 8th grade essays compare between simulation and experimental results, Cd can be used, with three of its isotopes: 110, 111 and 114. Through this com- parison it is possible to nd out the plasma fundamental parameters that characterize the used instrument. In the following a short experimental description of the implantation and measure of literary essay assignment ions number is given.
In order to detect the radial distribution of Cd - this element is used because it shows a signicant radial dependence -, an Aluminium target was placed at the base of the extraction lens. Of Research? Thus implanted ions should represent the spatially resolved composition of the extracted ion beam. Criticism Essay Assignment? The target is term papers, analyzed by Laser Ablation ICP-MS after implantation, performing a line scan from the rim region (A) toward the center of the target (B), as shown in Figure 6.26. The spacing between two adjacent ablation spots (150 µm) is sucient to have a high spatial resolution density and, in literary criticism essay the same time, to for application to university program avoid overlapping . Because laser ablation removes material in the range of several hundreds of nanometer per pulse, a complete removal of the im- planted ions is ensured. The calculated ratio 114Cd/111Cd in a single data set from a representative Cd isotope ratio analysis is represented in Figure 6.27, with the literary criticism corresponding transient signal for 114Cd. Since laser ablation provides spatially resolved information on the im- planted matter, a relation between Cadmium signal and narrative essay order, ion beam intensity has to be assumed in order to deduce the ion beam prole. However, the sputtering due to the high Ar-beam current jeopardizes this relation; the 63 Figure 6.26: Sketch of the Al target assembly mounted in criticism essay the Neptune MC- ICP-MS instrument. The dotted line denes the area exposed to the ion beam and the position of the line scan is given by the black line . Figure 6.27: 114Cd/111Cd isotope ratio (open circles) and signal intensity . 64 Table 6.3: Set of simulation run run number Up (V) Te (K) 1 2 8000 2 3 5000 3 4 10000 4 8 5000 5 2 5000 6 2 10000 signal intensity is high in an annulus around 1 mm from the centre and then decreases when moving toward the centre.
This drop coincides with optically observed material defect; at this location the low signal is probably caused by removal of birches material by sputtering. To plot the ratio 114Cd/111Cd against the distance from the literary criticism essay assignment centre, some simulations have been run, with the following conguration set: ¿½' 35 iterations, 20 with Argon only + 15 with all the particles, ¿½' masses array = 110, 111, 114, ¿½' beam current = 5 µA, ¿½' mesh size = 50 µm, ¿½' dierent plasma potentials (Up) and electron temperature (Te). As explained before, the aim of these simulations was to nd a beam prole as similar as possible to essay love the one shown in Figure 6.27. To reach this achievement, Up and criticism essay assignment, Te were varied in stories their validity interval. The parameters for each run are summarized in criticism essay assignment Table 6.3. Essay Stories? Beam proles have been plotted; increasing Up the trend becomes at, so Up = 2 V is the setting that resembles the real value best. Regarding the electron temperature, its contribute is not signicant as the Up is. Since the ratio obtained with the simulation is slightly dierent from the experimental one, identifying the literary essay electron temperature real value results more dicult. In Figures 6.28 to 6.30 ratios are given for love, three values of Te. It seems that the intermediate case - 2 V and 8000 K - is the literary criticism essay closer to reality, even if the shape diers for some features.
While the experimental plot rapidly decreases in the center and its trend is clear, the simulated one decreases slowly; at the edge, it can be seen the same low point it can be found at 6 mm in transition words for 8th Figure 6.27 - even if in criticism essay assignment Figure 6.29 is at dierent position, 2 mm closer to the center. The trouble is that data processing could give rise to dierent explanations, depending on which bin size is choosen plotting the topic proposal histogram. More accurated and resoluted simulations are necessary in order to make this comparison more precise and reliable. 65 Figure 6.28: 114Cd/111Cd ratio for Up = 2 V and Te = 5000 K. Criticism Essay Assignment? Figure 6.29: 114Cd/111Cd ratio for Up = 2 V and Te = 8000 K. 66 Figure 6.30: 114Cd/111Cd ratio for Up = 2 V and Te = 10000 K. 67 Chapter 7 Results and frost essay, discussion The present work wants only to be a starting point in the understanding of the extraction process: in the future, on literary criticism essay, one hand more simulations and with dierent softwares can be performed and on the other some im- provements can be applied to the instrument.
IBSimu already represents a better simulation package compared to SIMION; with the latter, taking into account the space charge eects is dicult and birches, really impractical. Nev- ertheless, IBSimu still has a liability: it is impossible to y neutral particles and then simulating the scattering process between neutrals. Criticism? For this rea- son the topic of research proposal group of Kivel is developing new simulations, both with dsmcFoam1 and with PI-DSMC (Parallel Interactive Direct Simulation Monte Carlo). Both this programs use the probabilistic (Monte Carlo) simulation to under- stand the uidodynamics of the free jet expansion. DSMC has been already documented in some articles  ; the particular implementation of the algorithm is called FENIX. As the solver in IBSimu, the literary criticism Monte Carlo al- gorithm models the gas ow by dividing the simulation region into small spatial collision cells, each one smaller in topic of research the extent than the local mean free path. Then, each particle is given a random chance to collide with its nearest neighbor in its collision cell, using the collision statistics appropri- ate to the density and temperature in the cell. A more detailed description of the literary assignment algorithm can be found elsewhere  . The aim of the FENIX simulation would be to stories make a more detailed calculation of the ow in the ICP-MS, not limited to the region downstream the skimmer anymore, but in criticism the whole extraction interface. Term Papers? In this approach the study of the jet ex- pansion reported in chapter 4 is fundamental to make a comparison between simulated and theoretical results and in order to validate the model. Literary? This new simulation software is fundamental even for essay order, another reason: applying a modest voltage to the skimmer could improve the transmission eciency.
Usually about 10% of the total number of ying particles is essay assignment, lost on the skimmer walls and the trouble is that most of these particles are the lightest. For Application Graduate? Electrically oating one or both the cones at literary criticism assignment, various potentials could accelerate the ions and therefore reduce this phenomenon. It has been found, with IBSimu, that having the skimmer at few volts would focus the essay disobeying 1dsmcFoam is part of the open source CFD package OpenFOAM. 68 Figure 7.1: Sketches of the three used arrangements . beam; the downside of this action stands upstream the literary criticism skimmer, where ions would see a repulsive force. For this reason simulating the entire extraction interface with DSMC is necessary, in order to understand the beam behav- ior. Hu and Houk  applied modest DC voltages (+10 to +50 V ) to both the sampler and the skimmer or, alternatively, left the sampler oating - i.e., deliberately not connected to any voltage source or to ground - with the transition words for 8th grade skimmer biased. Three specic arrangements (shown in gure 7.1) were studied: (a) sampler and skimmer biased together, (b) sampler oated and skimmer biased and (c) sampler grounded and skimmer biased. The results are depicted in gure 7.2 with Co+ as analyte.2 There is an literary essay improvement in each case: by words grade, a factor of 4 (modestly) by applying the same DC voltages - about literary essay assignment, 20 V - to both sampler and skimmer (A), by a factor 5 of in case C, and by a factor of 6 by oating the sampler and applying a DC voltage of cover to university graduate program 30 ¿½'' 40 V to essay the skimmer. It results that conguration b is the graduate one which gives the higher signal; 2Relative sensitivity refers to the sensitivity obtained for a given element with one of the new interface arrangements divided by that obtained for the same element with the conventional interface. Essay Assignment? 69 Figure 7.2: Relative Co+ sensitivity as a function of biasing voltage .
Table 7.1: Molar sensitivities for various elements expressed in terms of atomic concentration  molar sensitivity (counts/ (s · mM)) interface arrangement Co Rh Ho m/z = 59 m/z = 103 m/z = 165 conventional interface 5.6 · 107 8.5 · 107 2.2 · 108 interface b 3.5 · 108 3.3 · 108 3.0 · 108 in Table 7.1 molar sensitivities for various elements are compared. Another advantage given by this conguration is the reducing of the mass bias: in fact, the sensitivity is improved for Co+ by a much greater factor than is in the case for term, the heavier Ho+. Even if it seems that the ions have a sucient kinetic energy to ow through the sampling cones, some simulations should been run in order to check what happens upstream the criticism skimmer: applicating a positive potential could repel ions and prevent them from passing through the orice. So in this case the simulation eld has to be extended, in order to japanese start the beam in literary correspondence to the sampler. 70 Chapter 8 Conclusions As explained in the introduction, the aim of birches essay this work was the optimization of the ion extraction from the ICP.
IBSimu turned out to be a suitable and useful instrument for literary criticism essay, this purpose, thanks to its versatility and easiness of use. It calculates the comprehensive electrci potential dividing the simula- tion region in small meshes or cells. Once chosen the fastest solver among the many available, the mesh size has been determined in birches essay order to have a good compromise between results quality and computing time. At the beginning, the code describing the literary assignment simulation eld was characterized by a 2D mirror geometry; due to some problems, switching to a full geometry came out to be convenient. Then the main section of the work started: the investigation on how the beam prole changes upon varying the plasma main parameters, i.e. the plasma potential and the electron temperature. Japanese? Changing the plasma potential, noticeable dierences were observed in literary criticism essay the beam prole only in the range between 2 and term papers, 10 V; increasing Up more particles collide on the skimmer wall and then the beam prole decreases in criticism essay intensity attening. The electron temperature has a less considerable eect and, particularly, its consequence depends on topic proposal, the plasma potential value: if Up is literary essay, low, increasing. Te the trend attens, while if Up is high nearly nothing changes.
Since the japanese term papers aperture to the mass spectrometer is 4 mm wide, the couple of values. Up = 2V and Te = 8000K has been chosen in order to have a sharp peak with a high number of counts. Literary Criticism Assignment? This result has been obtained ying only Argon ions, but it has then been ratied simulating a beam with many species. One of the most severe problem in the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry is mass discrimination, that is the preferential lost of the beam particles with a low mass in respect to heavier species. Proposal? This phenomenon has been characterized and then the eect of a plasma potential and elec- tron temperature variation has been studied in order to see if it determines any advantage. While only small and negligible dierences occur changing. - caricare i tuoi contenuti.
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Beschrijf ook hoe je bedrijfskolom eruit ziet. Hoe verloopt de distributie van leverancier tot klant? Waar ga je de producten of literary criticism assignment, diensten verkopen? Wie zijn de leveranciers? Zijn er samenwerkingsverbanden?
Promotie maken kan op allerlei manieren en via verschillende kanalen. Beurzen, nieuwsbrieven of japanese, internet zijn mogelijke promotiekanalen. Wanneer ga je wat precies doen? Promotie hoeft zeker niet duur te zijn. Er zijn vele mogelijkheden: advertentie plaatsen, billboards, promotiefoldertjes, mondelinge promotie bij feestjes en verenigingen, mond tot mond reclame, gerichte promotiefolder, telefonisch contact, winkelinrichting, kortingsbonnen, persbericht, eigen website, webadvertising, sponsoring, beurzen (bezoeken of criticism, eigen stand), etc.
Alles begint met wie je wilt bereiken en wie jou moet begrijpen. Kun je het werk alleen aan, of het nodig personeel aan te trekken? Personeel aannemen moet zorgvuldig gebeuren. Cover Letter For Application To University Graduate? Het belang van de uitstraling van het personeel naar buiten toe is criticism assignment van groot belang en wordt regelmatig onderschat. Essay? Hoe kom je aan jouw personeel? Heb je behoefte aan hoog- of laaggekwalificeerd? Wordt het personeel zelf opgeleid? Welke normen en waarden worden er gehanteerd? Een missie is literary assignment waarvoor we staan, een visie is words grade essays waarvoor we gaan.
De missie heeft te maken met waarden en identiteit. Een visie geeft aan: hoe gaan wij de wereld van morgen beïnvloeden zodat wij succes hebben? Het is literary noodzakelijk om kort en bondig je missie en je visie te kunnen beschrijven. Frost Birches Essay? Grote lappen tekst met onderbouwing kunnen in het plan zelf terug komen. Literary Criticism? Wel moeten ze duidelijk zijn. Frost? Dat kun je vrij gemakkelijk doen via de SMART theorie. SMART staat voor: Specifiek, Meetbaar, Attractief, Realistisch en Tijdgebonden. Literary Criticism Essay? Als aan deze voorwaarden wordt voldaan kan via het ondernemingsplan zelf nagegaan worden of deze missie en doelstellingen uiteindelijk met alle aanwezige achtergrond informatie werkelijk mogelijk zijn. Wie zijn we, wat zijn onze waarden, hoe willen we met onze klanten en medewerkers omgaan? Probeer ook zo reëel mogelijk in te schatten hoe groot de omzet is die je verwacht te gaan halen.
Waar wil je over 5 tot 10 jaar staan met je onderneming? Wat ga je doen om te zorgen dat je succes hebt en houdt? Het financieel plan is in feite het vertalen van de aannames uit het ondernemingsplan naar financiën/geld. Japanese Term? Je kunt onze gratis template financieel plan daarvoor gebruiken. Literary Criticism Essay Assignment? Het financiële hoofdstuk bestaat uit de volgende onderdelen: Waar komt mijn kapitaal vandaan en waar is frost het geïnvesteerd? Ben ik - winstgevend? Kan ik op tijd voldoen aan mijn financiële verplichtingen? Een bedrijf starten kost geld.
Sommige investeringen zijn noodzakelijk om te kunnen starten, andere kunnen misschien beter nog even wachten. In de investeringsbegroting zet je op een rij wat je minimaal nodig hebt om te kunnen starten. De investeringsbegroting is onderverdeeld in essay assignment vaste activa en vlottende activa. Narrative Disobeying Order? Vaste activa, zoals een computer, machines, inventaris, en een bedrijfsauto, zijn bedrijfsmiddelen die langer dan een jaar in je bedrijf aanwezig zijn. Literary Criticism Assignment? Deze middelen maken het mogelijk dat je de activiteiten kunt uitvoeren. Letter For Application To University? Zij ondersteunen het bedrijfsproces. Bedrijfsmiddelen die korter dan een jaar in assignment je bedrijf aanwezig zijn, zoals voorraden, vorderingen, voorfinanciering BTW en debiteuren, zijn vlottende activa. Essay? Deze middelen zijn onderdeel van je bedrijfsproces.
Aanloop- en openingskosten zijn kosten die je maakt voordat je kunt starten en/of omzet kunt maken. Voorbeelden: notariskosten, inschrijving Kamer van Koophandel, levensonderhoud eerste periode, marktonderzoek, advieskosten, visitekaartjes en briefpapier. Onderbouw de bedragen met offertes. Literary Criticism Essay? Vraag offertes op bij meerdere leveranciers om zo tot een juiste keuze te komen. Papers? Houd rekening met onvoorziene kosten. In uw financieringsbegroting staat hoe je de benodigde investeringen gaat financieren. Literary Assignment? Dit kan door middel van eigen vermogen of essay stories love, met vreemd vermogen. Het deel van de investeringen dat je zelf financiert heet eigen vermogen. Literary Criticism Essay Assignment? Dit kan in proposal vorm van geld zijn dat je hebt gespaard of criticism assignment, bedrijfsmiddelen (auto, voorraad, computer) die je eerder hebt aangeschaft. Het kan ook zijn dat een familielid of transition words for 8th essays, kennis je geld wil lenen. Er is een regeling die het voor particulieren, zoals familie of kennissen, fiscaal aantrekkelijk maakt geld aan startende ondernemers te lenen.
Deze regeling biedt zo'n particuliere geldgever namelijk interessante fiscale voordelen. Literary Criticism? Zogenaamde `achtergestelde´ leningen of transition grade essays, durfkapitaal wordt door een kredietverstrekker vaak gezien als eigen vermogen. Criticism Assignment? Andere voorbeelden van partijen die kunnen financieren en hun bedrag achter zouden willen stellen, zijn de huurbaas, of frost, de vorige eigenaar van de zaak die je hebt overgenomen. Vreemd vermogen is criticism essay assignment geld dat zakelijke financiers (bijvoorbeeld banken en leveranciers) je willen lenen. Essay Stories? Er is onderscheid tussen schulden met een looptijd van langer dan een jaar en korter dan een jaar. In feite zijn de langlopende leningen bedoeld om de vaste activa te financieren. Hypothecaire leningen hebben als doel een bedrijfspand te financieren, met een (middellange) banklening (of lease) kun je een machine of assignment, inventaris aanschaffen. Dat betekent automatisch dat de vlottende activa met kort vreemd vermogen moet worden gefinancierd. Dit zijn voornamelijk het rekening-courantkrediet (of werkkapitaal) en crediteuren (leverancierskrediet).
In feite kan zelfs de belastingdienst je financieren, maar daar kun je beter maar niet te veel op leunen. Een balans is een overzicht van de bezittingen, de schulden en het eigen vermogen van je onderneming op een bepaald moment. Anders gezegd: op een balans staat wat je hebt (activa, de linkerzijde van de balans), in de vorm van geld, goederen, enz., en hoe die gefinancierd zijn (passiva, de rechterzijde van de balans): met eigen vermogen of essay disobeying, met vreemd vermogen (leningen). Dus een balans is literary criticism essay assignment een momentopname van bezittingen en van de manier waarop deze zijn betaald. De solvabiliteit is de verhouding van uw eigen vermogen ten opzichte van het totaal benodigde vermogen. Japanese Term Papers? Dit geeft aan in literary criticism essay hoeverre uw onderneming de schulden op lange termijn kan voldoen. In je verkoopprognose moet je de omzet op een juiste en reële manier inschatten.
Het maken van een verkoopprognose is words grade essays niet eenvoudig, maar wel noodzakelijk. Literary Criticism Essay Assignment? Daarmee kun je namelijk inschatten wat je gaat verdienen en of japanese papers, dat voldoende is criticism essay om alle verplichtingen te kunnen voldoen. Uiteindelijk bepaalt de omzet, minus de inkoopkosten en overige kosten je winst of frost, verlies. De berekening is literary simpel. Essay? Het aantal verkochte producten per criticism essay maand wordt vermenigvuldigd met de prijs die voor het product vraagt. Als dienstverlener kun je het aantal uren invullen, wanneer je een vergoeding op uurbasis vraagt. De omzet moet je exclusief BTW opgeven.
Je moet wel aangeven welk BTW tarief op jouw product of dienst van toepassing is. Essay Love? (21%, 6% of literary criticism essay assignment, 0%). De belastingdienst geeft hier meer informatie over. Omzet wordt gemaakt op het moment dat de factuur naar de klant/opdrachtgever wordt gestuurd. Dat wil in de meeste gevallen niet zeggen dat het geld direct wordt bijgeschreven op je rekening. Betalen je klanten direct (contact of PIN) zoals in de detailhandel, of moet je weken op je geld wachten. Essay Order? Deze periode noemen we de debiteurentermijn. Literary Essay? Onderaan de verkoopprognose moet je invullen wanneer welk deel van je klanten gaat betalen.
Zorg ervoor dat je prognose kan worden onderbouwd met cijfers uit de branchegegevens, je concurrentieanalyse en marketingmix. Transition Grade Essays? Houd rekening met seizoensinvloeden. Literary Criticism Assignment? Ga je direct in transition for 8th grade essays je eerste maand omzet maken, of is essay assignment er sprake van een aanloopperiode? Is het geplande aantal uren daadwerkelijk declarabel? Houd rekening met bijvoorbeeld reistijd, acquisitie, ziekte, administratie. Papers? Is deze omzet haalbaar (reëel), gezien vanuit de geplande investeringen en personeelscapaciteit? Om geld te kunnen verdienen aan producten die je verkoopt, moet je die producten eerst zelf inkopen.
Het verschil tussen wat je verkoopt en de prijs die je zelf hebt betaald om die producten in criticism essay te kopen is frost birches essay je brutowinst. Er bestaat dus een direct verband tussen inkoop en verkoop. Literary Criticism Assignment? De inkoopprijs van alle verkochte artikelen hoort tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet. Essay Stories Love? De formule om de inkoopwaarde van de omzet te bepalen is literary essay als volgt: Beginvoorraad + Jaarinkopen Eindvoorraad. Alle producten die je al wel hebt ingekocht, maar nog niet hebt verkocht, heb je op voorraad en worden daarom niet tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet gerekend. Bedrijven die niet handelen in cover to university graduate program producten, maar hun kennis en tijd ‘verkopen’ aan de klant, hebben te maken met diensten. Diensten hebben meestal geen inkoopprijs (of slechts zeer gering).
Bij diensten kun je stellen dat de brutowinst (bijna) gelijk is literary aan de behaalde omzet. Er zijn meerdere factoren die de inkoopwaarde van de omzet kunnen bepalen. Denk bijvoorbeeld aan het inhuren van andere bedrijven (‘diensten van derden’). Narrative Order? Deze worden meestal ook rechtstreeks van de behaalde omzet afgehaald. Essay? Andere voorbeelden zijn provisies die je betaald aan tussenpersonen of agenten, het huren van materiaal die je nodig hebt om een dienst te kunnen verlenen. Term? Dit zijn zogenaamde directe kosten. Literary Essay Assignment? Heeft een bedrijf te maken met een werkplaats, dan worden veel van de bewerkkosten of ‘maak’ kosten ook rechtstreeks verrekend met de behaalde omzet. Eigenlijk alles met een rechtstreeks verband met de behaalde omzet! Om de inkoopprognose correct in essay disobeying order te vullen, moet je invullen wanneer je daadwerkelijk voorraad moet gaan inkopen. Afhankelijk van het product, de branche en de vraag zal de frequentie verschillen.
Is het nodig dat je elke dag inkoopt (bijv. Literary Essay? verse levensmiddelen), of kun slechts één keer per for 8th grade essays kwartaal je inkopen doen (bijv. Essay Assignment? kleding)? Kun je inschatten hoe lang je product gemiddeld op voorraad ligt? En welke deel van je voorraad is words niet meer te verkopen na verloop van tijd (incourante voorraad)? In je exploitatiebegroting schat je in literary criticism assignment of je bedrijf rendabel is. Door de omzet en kosten in japanese term een overzicht te plaatsen, kun je in literary assignment een oogopslag zien of japanese papers, je bedrijf winst of literary assignment, verlies maakt. For 8th Grade? In de exploitatiebegroting staan de bedragen exclusief BTW vermeld. Uitgangspunt voor de exploitatiebegroting is literary criticism essay assignment de verkoopprognose (zie 3.3). Words For 8th Grade Essays? Door de inkoopwaarde van de omzet af te trekken wordt de brutowinst zichtbaar. De inkoopwaarde van de omzet wordt berekend aan de hand van de ingevulde inkoopprognose (zie 3.4). Door de brutowinst te verminderen met alle wederkerend bedrijfskosten, zoals huisvestings-, vervoers-, promotie- en personeelskosten, houd jij je netto bedrijfsresultaat over. Literary Assignment? Dit bepaalt of essay, je bedrijfsactiviteit op zichzelf rendabel is.
Onder de bedrijfskosten vallen ook de afschrijvingen. Afschrijvingen zijn wel kosten, maar geen uitgaven. Literary Criticism Essay? Afschrijvingen geven de je gelegenheid reserves op te bouwen om te kunnen (her)investeringen in japanese term de vaste activa van je bedrijf. Essay Assignment? Je geeft het geld pas uit op het moment dat je moet gaan investeren. Transition Words For 8th Essays? Je geeft je ook extra ruimte om je aflosverplichting te voldoen. Voordat jij je winst uit onderneming kan bepalen, moet je opgeven hoeveel vergoeding je aan de financiers, die je bedrijfsactiviteit mede mogelijk hebben gemaakt , jaarlijks moet betalen. Dit wordt ook wel rente genoemd. Als je winst hebt gemaakt, moet je daarover belasting betalen. Literary Essay? Hoeveel dat is, hangt af van het winstbedrag en aftrekposten die je als zelfstandige mag opvoeren. Voor deze aftrekposten gelden wel diverse voorwaarden. Kijk daarom goed op de site van de belastingdienst.
De nettowinst is de basis voor uw inkomen uit een eenmanszaak of proposal, VOF. Criticism Essay Assignment? In een BV staat de ondernemer als bestuurder/directeur van de BV op de loonlijst en ontvangt een salaris. Het salaris is proposal een kostenpost voor de BV. Literary? De omzet moet hoog genoeg zijn om ook het salaris van de directeur te betalen. Frost Birches Essay? We bieden je gratis een eenvoudige template voor exploitatiebegroting. Aannames moeten gebaseerd zijn op goed doordachte veronderstellingen Omzet op basis van marktonderzoek en niet op alleen basis van aantal x prijs Check de samenhang met het Marketingplan Omzet moet met gewenst personeelsbestand en kapitaal vervaardigd kunnen worden. Kun je elke maand alle rekeningen betalen? Door het maken van een liquiditeitsbegroting bepaal je of literary assignment, er iedere maand voldoende geld op je rekening staat.
Inkomsten en uitgaven kunnen gedurende een jaar sterk wisselen. Transition Words Grade Essays? Bijvoorbeeld door seizoensinvloeden, een vakantieperiode, belastingaanslag of door klanten die laat betalen. Criticism Essay Assignment? Met een liquiditeitsbegroting maak je inzichtelijk op welk moment extra financiën nodig zijn. Vrijwel alle bedrijfskosten die zijn opgenomen in de exploitatiebegroting komen ook terug in transition essays de liquiditeitsbegroting. Afschrijvingen vormen hierop de belangrijkste uitzondering. De liquiditeitsbegroting toont hoe de kosten over het jaar worden verdeeld en aan in literary criticism essay assignment welke maand de kosten daadwerkelijk betaald moeten worden. Zeker in een groeiende ondernemingen zullen met de omzet ook de kosten maandelijks variëren (en toenemen). Naast de bedrijfskosten, worden ook de (maandelijkse) privéopnamen, inclusief inkomstenbelasting, en aflossingen staan niet in de liquiditeitsbegroting opgenomen. Japanese Term? Via onze site kun je nu eenvoudig een sjabloon liquiditeitsbegroting downloaden. Op de exploitatiebegroting zijn alle bedragen exclusief BTW. Literary Assignment? In de liquiditeitsbegroting reken je de BTW ontvangsten en uitgaven mee.
Uit de exploitatiebegroting kun je opmaken of je voldoende omzet genereert om de bedrijfs- en financieringskosten te dekken. Words For 8th Essays? De cashflow berekent vervolgens of jij je privéopnamen wel uit de onderneming kan halen en of literary, er daarnaast genoeg overblijft om leningen af te lossen, herinvesteringen te voldoen of reserves op te bouwen. Grofweg is de cashflow gelijk aan de nettowinst plus afschrijvingen van een onderneming. De cashflow is positief als er jaarlijks meer geld binnenkomt dan dat er uit gaat. Essay? De cashflow is negatief als er per literary criticism essay assignment jaar meer geld wordt uitgegeven dan er binnenkomt.
Een positieve cashflow wil niet direct zeggen dat je onderneming liquide is, dat er het hele jaar door voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Words? Dat moet blijken uit de liquiditeitsbegroting. Voordat je met je bedrijf begint, moet je weten hoeveel je maandelijks nodig om privé van rond te komen. Criticism Essay Assignment? Breng al je (huishoud)verplichtingen in essay disobeying order kaart. Literary Criticism Assignment? Vermeld ook alle inkomsten die je huishouding ontvangt, zoals het loon (inclusief vakantie geld en dertiende maand) van jezelf en/of je partner, uitkeringen, pensioenen en eventueel kinderbijslag. Het verschil tussen de privéverplichtingen en -inkomsten bepaalt het bedrag dat je maandelijks uit je onderneming moet halen om van te leven. Houd je zakelijke betalingsverkeer gescheiden van je privé-inkomsten en -uitgaven door het openen van een aparte rekeningen. Een afschrijving is het in term de boekhouding tot uitdrukking brengen van de waardedaling van een bedrijfsmiddel over essay, een bepaalde periode.
Doordat je machines gebruikt zullen ze slijten. Ook zal de waarde van je gebouw of of research proposal, vrachtwagens in de loop van de jaren afnemen. Literary? De waardevermindering van deze kapitaalgoederen wordt ook wel afschrijving of birches, afschrijvingskosten genoemd. Er wordt steeds afschrijving toegepast om de slijtage door het gebruik tot uitdrukking te brengen. Deze afschrijving vormt een kostenpost in literary criticism de Winst- en Verliesrekening en leidt dus tot een lager resultaat. Bekijk de mogelijkheden van Qredits. Ondernemingsplan template downloaden. Als je een onderneming wilt beginnen, is birches essay het verstandig eerst een ondernemingsplan te maken.
Qredits wil je hier graag mee op weg helpen. E-learning Ondernemingsplan Schrijven. Deze e-learning laat jou nadenken over je onderneming. Literary Assignment? Je krijgt volop inspiratie en voorbeelden. Papers? Na afloop download je een kant en klaar plan. Vind je het moeilijk om je eigen ondernemingsplan op te stellen? Twijfel je of het goed is? Een coach helpt je bij het structureren van je ideeen.
Qredits helpt ondernemers bij het succesvol starten van en investeren in literary criticism essay hun bedrijf. We bieden coaching, kennis in transition words grade essays de Qredits Academy voor ondernemers en we verstrekken bedrijfskredieten tot 250.000. Qredits verstrekt de microkredieten mede dankzij twee programmas van de Europese Unie: het EaSI, een Europees programma voor werkgelegenheid en sociale innovatie, en COSME, een programma dat de concurrentiepositie van midden- en kleinbedrijf verbetert. Literary? Lees meer.
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English 271 Critical Essay Assignment - NDSU
5 Resume Tips for On-Ramping Women. Literary Criticism Assignment. Lets face it: We are much more likely than men to take time off from work to care for children, parents and other family members something that can punch a big fat hole in our resumes. About two-thirds of caregivers are women, according to data from the National Alliance on Caregiving and the AARP, and female caregivers spend more time providing care than men 21.9 versus 17.4 hours a week on average. Essay. So its no surprise that a lot of women end up facing a gap in their work histories. But thats not necessarily a bad thing when youre job searching.
Many of the roles women take on during time out of the workforce like scheduling a parents medical appointments or dealing with a relatives estate can make a resume shine even brighter. Its all a matter of framing it the right way. Lets face it: We are much more likely than men to take time off from work to assignment, care for children, parents and other family members something that can punch a big fat hole in our resumes. About two-thirds of caregivers are women, according to data from the topic proposal, National Alliance on Caregiving and the AARP, and female caregivers spend more time providing care than men 21.9 versus 17.4 hours a week on average. So its no surprise that a lot of women end up facing a gap in their work histories. Essay. But thats not necessarily a bad thing when youre job searching. Many of the roles women take on during time out of the workforce like scheduling a parents medical appointments or dealing with a relatives estate can make a resume shine even brighter. Its all a matter of birches essay framing it the right way.
Its extremely important to make the years flow in the work experience section of essay your CV, says Kathy Downs, a Robert Half Finance Accounting recruiting manager in love Orlando, Fla. That means no gaps from literary criticism, college graduation through the present. So what to transition words for 8th grade essays, do if youve scaled back or stepped out of the workforce to literary, care for family? Women whove taken time off for caregiving can close the gap by documenting how theyve fulfilled continuing education requirements, performed volunteer work for a childs school, participated in fundraising or handled the myriad logistical chores inherent in taking care of an elderly relative anything thats related to the skills required for birches essay, the job theyre pursuing. For example, a resume entry for literary criticism essay assignment, this period may look like this: CaregiverMarch 2012-February 2013. Sabbatical to become caregiver for a family member which included scheduling of care, financial custodianship and estate/probate legal coordination.
Extended the life of a family trust from a projected four years to seven years. Essay Disobeying Order. This sort of entry will be valuable to companies seeking sales or business development, says Stephen Laser, a Chicago-based psychologist who is often hired by employers to interview and test job candidates. Dont hide this in an Other Skills or Additional Information section at the bottom of your resume. Instead, use your caregiving to fill in blanks in essay the main section, says Downs. So long as youre comfortable with your prospective employer knowing about your family situation, then theres every reason to topic, cite accomplishments in this area. Most importantly, she says, You need to acknowledge [and fill in] the gap in your work history, no matter how short or long it is. Literary Assignment. The experience you get in proposal a volunteer position can often be as valuable at least on a resume as the skills you hone in a paid job. Essay Assignment. Any financial experience accrued while youre away, for example, should absolutely be highlighted, says Laser, author of the book Out-of-Work and Over-40, who observes that women raising children may spend some of their time volunteering as treasurer at a church or synagogue, or raising money for philanthropic causes. Alternatively, if you are caring for a loved one with a disability and managing a family trust, thats also a valuable resume entry. This also holds true if youve been involved in japanese papers fundraising or any sort of fund soliciting. These are all important skills, says Laser. Assignment. Moreover, Downs, who is a board member on a number of organizations, including the National Association of Black Accountants, says that normally she would simply list these directorships.
However, if shed experienced a lapse in employment, she says, she would seek out special projects to essay, work on literary, at these organizations while out of work and document her various achievements as a volunteer, such as: Worked on 2014 membership drive, or Table Captain for fundraising. Be sure to quantify your work, specifying, for cover letter to university program, example, how much money you helped to raise for an organization or how much you increased membership by. Even if youve volunteered at a small organization, citing a percentage increase can be valuable and essay assignment impressive, Downs notes. Cover Letter For Application To University Graduate. Women are often more reluctant than men to us actual figures in their resume to quantify the value they have added at companies or organizations where theyve previously worked, Downs observes. The root of the criticism essay, problem? It may be a lack of topic of research awareness about literary assignment, bottom lining it particularly in the corporate world, where numbers are critical and narrative disobeying order where the soft skills women often bring to the table may be overlooked. A reluctance to brag about accomplishments may also hold women back. But whether male or female, a job candidates documented ability to essay assignment, increase sales, subscriptions or other measurable objectives within of the birches, organizations he or she have worked is literary criticism assignment of immense importance to recruiters. Frost Birches. If your companys sales or ad growth went from $50 million to $100 million under your supervision, say so.
If brand recognition increased, mention and document that as well. It will be much more impressive than any superlatives you can think of in describing your skills and essay assignment talents. Quantifying your achievements numerically is really important, notes Downs. If you dont know what sales were like between the stories love, time you started and literary criticism essay when you left, do some research and find out. In fact, be as vigilant as you can about getting actual numbers. Essay Stories Love. Employers are also apt to ask about this during interviews, so its better to have the information at your fingertips. Describing yourself as a #8220;highly qualified#8221; #8220;self-starter#8221; who is a #8220;creative problem solver is more likely to hurt than help your resume, according to a recent survey by staffing service specialist OfficeTeam. These are the most overused or meaningless phrases senior managers see on resumes, according to criticism essay assignment, the survey, which queried some 1,300 senior managers at for 8th grade essays, companies with 20 or more employees in the U.S. and Canada. Instead, be specific.
Instead of saying highly qualified, for instance, think about your accomplishments in previous positions, emphasizing your specific skills. Literary Essay. Mention certifications you have earned. Instead of saying hard worker, describe how youve gone the extra mile meeting tough deadlines or successfully meeting goals outside your job description, for instance. Instead of essay order saying team player, describe how you partnered with colleagues to meet a specific objective. Employers are embracing increasingly sophisticated applicant tracking systems (ATS) and literary criticism essay assignment Cloud technology to transition, assist them with job searches. So be sure to scan job descriptions for important keywords to include in your resume. Otherwise, strive for simplicity. You may feel that getting creative by adding a lot of graphics to your resume will help you stand out; however, what often happens is literary criticism essay assignment that people do a very fancy resume that will look beautiful printed, but when its emailed and uploaded into an employers system the cover for application, formatting comes out garbled on the other side, Downs explains. Criticism Essay Assignment. Stick to papers, two pages maximum, even if you have to leave out an objective or summary, and consider adding the literary assignment, summary back in frost if your resume is more than one but less than two pages. It should ether be one full page or two, says Downs.
Finally, if your specialty is in literary criticism essay IT, marketing, advertising or web design, it is almost imperative to japanese papers, have a resume that incorporates hyperlinks, video and literary criticism essay assignment other media that reads electronically, she adds. And if youre in an industry like graphic design that puts a premium on infographic resumes (check with HR), format accordingly. Narrative Essay. Everything You Never Learned About Money, Image Credits: Fuse, dmark/iStock, Devonyu/iStock, Creatas Images, Elenathewise/iStock.
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Textual Analysis Sample Essay Assignment: "Literary Analysis Paper
Essay on Health Problems in India. India was one of the pioneers in health service planning with a focus on primary health care. In 1946, the Health Survey and essay, Development Committee, headed by Sir Joseph Bhose recommended establishment of a well structured and comprehensive health service with a sound primary health care infrastructure. Social development through improvement in health status can be achieved through improving the access to and utilization of Health, Family Welfare and Nutrition service with special focus on underserved and under privileged segment of words for 8th grade essays population. Under the literary assignment Constitution, health is topic of research, a state subject. Central Government can intervene to assist the literary criticism essay state governments in the area of control/eradication of major communicable and non-communicable diseases, broad policy formulation, medical and term papers, para-medical education combined with regulatory measures, drug control and prevention of literary criticism assignment food adulteration, Child Survival and Safe Motherhood (CSSM) and immunization programme. 2. National Health Programmes.
Kala-azar is a serious public health problem endemic in Bihar and West-Bengal. Kala-azar control was being provided by the Government of India out of the National Malaria Eradication Programme (NMEP), until 1990-91. The Centre provides insecticide, anti-Kala-azar drugs and cover for application to university graduate program, technical guidance to the affected states. During the Ninth Plan, the focus will be on ensuring effective implementation of the programme so as to prevent outbreaks and eventually to control infection. DDT will continue to be the literary assignment mainstay for insecticide spray as the vector (phlebotomus argentites) is still susceptible to DDT. National Anti-Malaria Programme was implemented in 1958, which reduced the annual incidence of malaria to one lakh in 1965. Deaths due to malaria were completely eliminated. But resurgence of malaria necessitated review of vigorous anti-malaria activities. For 8th Essays. The Modified Plan of, Operation (MPO) was implemented from April, 1977, which reduce the incidence of malaria to 1.66 million in 1987 from 6.47 million in 1976. In view of the high incidence of malaria and resource, constraints in seven north-eastern states, 100 per assignment, cent Central Government assistance was provided with effect from December, 1994.
For effective control of malaria, the Enhanced Malaria Control Project was launched in September 1997, with World Bank assistance, under which 100 hard core and tribal predominant districts of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Orissa and 19 problematic towns of various states have been included. (iii) National Filaria Control Programme. It was launched in 1955 and it took up several activities including: (i) delimitation of the problem in hitherto unsurveyed areas and (ii) control in urban areas through recurrent anti-larval measures and anti parasite measures. At present about 49.87 million urban populations is protected by anti-larval measures through 206 control units, 199 filaria clinics and 27 filaria survey units. ( iv) Modified Plan of essay stories love operation for NMEP during the Ninth Plan. Intensification of control activities in areas with. API of literary 2 in the last 3 years Pf rate of 30 per cent Reported deaths due to malaria 25 per cent of the population is tribal. (v) Component of the Modified Plan of Operation.
Early diagnosis and prompt treatment. Selective vector control and personal protection. Prediction, early detection and effective response to out breaks. Japanese Encephalitis (JE) has been reported in the country since mid-fifties and caused by virus and spread by mosquitoes has a mortality ratio of 30 to 45 per cent. Due to development of irrigation projects and narrative essay order, changing pattern of water resource management there has been a progressive increase in literary criticism the number of states reporting cases of J.E. in India. The National Malaria Eradication Programme (NMEP) has been implementing, the papers recommendations of the Expert Committee on J.E. control. Under the Ninth Plan, Information, Education and Communication (IEC) activities to ensure community awareness and co-operation, for prevention and control of vector borne diseases will be intensified. Tuberculosis is a major health problem in literary criticism India. Studies carried out by the Indian Council of term papers Medical Research (ICMR) in the fifties and sixties showed that: Unlike the situation in developed countries, BCG did not protect against assignment, adult TB and BCG given at/soon after birth provided some protection against TB in infancy and early childhood.
Domicialiary treatment with anti TB drugs was safe and effective. National Tuberculosis Control Programme. It was initiated in 1962 as a CSS, which aimed at earl) case detection in symptomatic patients reporting to the health system through sputum microscopy and X-ray and effective domiciliary treatment with standard chemotherpy The short course chemotherapy introduced in selectee districts in japanese 1983, has shortened the duration of treatment to nine months. The Revised National Tuberculosis Programme (RNTCP) was launched in the country on March 1, 1997, and is proposed to be implemented in a phased manner in 102 districts of the country, covering a population of 271 million, with the assistance of World Bank. Under; the Ninth Plan, the NTCP (National TB Control Programme will be strengthened in 203 Short Course Chemotherapy (SCC) districts as a transitional step to adopt the RNTCF Under the Ninth-Plan, standard regime will be strengthened in literary the remaining non SCC districts and Central Institutions, State TB cells, and state TB Training Institutions through out the country will be strengthened. Dengue fever is a viral disease which is transmitted through the bites of female Aedes mosquitoes. There are four serotypes of transition essays Dengue virus which are prevalent in India since 1950. Dengue viral infection may remain a symptom atic/manifest itself either as undifferentiated febrile illness (Viral syndrome), Dengue fever (DF) or Dengu haemorrhaphic fever (DHF). An outbreak of Dengue was reported in literary essay Delhi in 1996, when 10,252 cases and 42 deaths reported, and was also reported from U.P, Punjal Haryana, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka.
Formulation of a National Dengue Control Programme is under consideration of the Central Government. During the Ninth-Plan efforts will be made to: (a) Establish an organized system of surveillance and monitoring. (b) Strengthen facilities for early diagnosis and prompt treatment. (c) Intensify IEC efforts to ensure that all households implement pre-domestic measures to reduce breeding of Aedes. The National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP) was launched in 1983 as hundred percent centrally sponsored schemes with the availability of Multi Drug Therapy (MDT).
It became possible to essay cure leprosy cases within a short period (6-24 months) of treatment. The NLEP programme was initially taken up in endemic districts and was extended to all over the country from 1994 with World Bank assistance. The first round of Modified Leprosy Elimination Campaign (MLEC) is to be implemented in all the states and UTs to create mass awareness. The target for the Ninth-Plan will be to decrease prevalence of leprosy 1/10,000 by 2002 A.D. It is estimated that there are 12.5 million economically blind persons in India. Of these over literary essay assignment, 80 per cent of blindness is due to cataract.
The National Blindness Control Programme started in 1976 as 100 per transition words for 8th grade essays, cent centrally sponsored programme with the objective of providing comprehensive eye care services at primary, secondary and tertiary health care level and literary criticism essay assignment, achieving substantial reduction in the prevalence of eye disease in general and for application to university, blindness in particular. The activities under the programme are yet to show an impact in reducing the prevalence of blindness to literary criticism essay assignment the goal level of 0.3 per essay stories love, cent by the year 2000 A.D. A major thrust was given under the Eight Plan to strengthen the programme in criticism essay Jammu and Kashmir and Karnataka. Funds from domestic budget as well as EAP were provided for this. At the tertiary level of opthalmic care there are eleven regional institutes of transition grade essays ophthalmology including the literary assignment apex institute, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences in the All India Institute of transition for 8th grade Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The programme priorities during the Ninth-Plan is to literary criticism essay assignment improve the quality of cover letter for application to university graduate cataract surgery, clear the backlog of cataract cases, improve quality of literary case by skill upgradation of eye case personnel, improve service delivery through NGO and Public Sector collaboration and increase coverage of eye care delivery among underprivileged population. Japanese Term Papers. The targets set up under Ninth-Plan are 17.5 million cataract operations and 100,000 corneal implants in between the literary criticism period 1997-2002. 3. Frost Birches. Sexually Transmitted Disease. Control of Sexually Transmitted Disease (STDs) was introduced as a national control programme by the Government of India during the Fourth Five Year Plan (1967). Essay Assignment. Since STD was one of the major determinants for narrative essay disobeying order, transmission of HIV infection, the programme has been merged with National AIDS Control Programme (NACO).
There is involvement of private practitioners in STD control through Indian Medical Association (IMA). Realizing the gravity of the epidemiological nature of HIV infection, the Government of India launched a National AIDS Control Programme in 1987. In 1992, National AIDS Control Organization was established and a 5 year strategic plan was implemented with a US $ 84 million soft loan from the literary criticism essay World Bank and another US $ 1.5 million in the form of technical assistance from the World Health Organization. Under the Chairmanship of Minister of Health and Family Welfare, National AIDS Committee has been constituted. During the Ninth Plan the focus will be more on increasing the number of HIV testing network, more effective implementation of the programme for ensuring safety of blood/blood products, augmenting STD, HIV/AIDS case facilities, strengthening Sentinel Surveillance and enhancing efforts to improve HIV/AIDs awareness, counselling and care. National AIDS Control Programme in disobeying order Five-Yearly Plan.
I. More effective implementation of the Programme to ensure safety of blood/blood products. II. Increasing the number of HIV testing network. III. Augmenting STD, HIV/AIDS case facilities. IV. Improving hospital infection control and waste management to reduce accidental infection. V. Improving HIV/AIDS awareness, counselling and care.
VI. Strengthening Sentinel Surveillance. Components of NACP (Phase II) VII. Reducing HIV transmission among poor and marginalized section of community at the highest risk of infection by targeted intervention, STD control and condom promotion;
VIII. Reducing the criticism essay assignment spread of HIV among the general population by reducing blood based transmission and promotion of IEC, voluntary testing and counselling; IX. Developing capacity for community based low cost care for people living with AIDS; X. Strengthening implementation capacity at the National, States and Municipal corporations levels through the establishment of cover to university program appropriate organisational arrangements and increasing timely access to essay assignment reliable information and. XI. Forging inter-sectoral linkages between public, private and voluntary sectors. 4. Iodine Deficiency Disorders. Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) has been recognized as a public health problem in India since mid-twenties. Japanese Term. IDD is not only a problem in sub-Himalayan region but also in riverine and coastal areas. It is criticism assignment, estimated that 61 million populations are suffering from endemic goitre and about 8.8 million people have mental/motor handicap due to iodine deficiency.
The National Goitre Control Programme was initiated in 1962 as a 100 per cent centrally funded, centre sector programme with the proposal objective of essay conducting goitre survey, and supplying good quality iodised salt to areas having high IDD, health education and resurvey after five years. In 1985, the topic of research government decided to iodise the entire edible salt in the country by 1992 in a phased manner. To date the production of iodated salt is essay, 42 lakh MT per annum. The NGCP was renamed and redesigned as National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme (NIDDCP) to emphasize the importance of all the IDDs. During the cover program Ninth-Plan the major objective of the NIDDCP programme is. (1) Production of adequate quantity of iodised salt of appropriate quality.
(2) Appropriate packaging at literary criticism essay, the site of production to prevent deterioration of quality of salt during transport and storage. (3) Facilities for term, testing the quality of salt not only. at production level but also at the retail outlets and literary criticism, household level so that consumers get and essays, use good quality salt. (4) IEC to ensure that people consume only good quality iodised salt. (5) Survey of IDD and setting up of district level IDD monitoring laboratories for estimation of iodine content of salt and urinary iodine excretion. 5. Disease Surveillance Programme. National Surveillance Programme for Communicable Diseases which has potential of causing large outbreaks such as acute diarrhoeal diseases and didesa, viral hepatitis, dengue/DHF, Japanese encephalitis, leptospirosis and plague. The objective of the programme is capacity building at the district level for criticism assignment, strengthening the disease surveillance system and appropriate response to outbreaks. The National Mental Health Programme was started in stories 1982.
The programme did not make much headway either in the Seventh or Eight Plan. The Mental Health Act (1987), which came into literary assignment, existence from April 1993, requires that each State/UT set up its own state level Mental Health Authority as a statutory obligation. Majority of the State/ UTs have complied with this and have formed a Mental Health Authority. The Cancer Control Programme was initiated in 1975- 76 as 100 per cent centrally funded centre sector project. It was renamed as National Cancer Control Programme in 1985. The objectives of the programme are. I. Primary prevention of cover letter graduate tobacco related cancers.
II. Secondary prevention of cancer cervix. III. Extension and essay, strengthening of treatment facilities on a national scale. The Focus during the Ninth-Plan will be. I. Intensification of IEC activities so that people seek care at the onset of symptoms. II. Provisions of diagnostic facilities in topic of research proposal primary and secondary case level so that cancers are detected at early stages when curative therapy can be administered.
III. Filling up of the literary essay assignment existing gaps in radiotherapy units in a phased manner so that all diagnosed cases do receive therapy without any delay as near to their residence as is feasible. IV. IEC to reduce tobacco consumption and essay disobeying order, avoid life styles which could lead to literary criticism essay increasing risk of cancers. 8. National Diabetes Control Programme.
The National Diabetes Control Programme has included a pilot programme in Seventh Five Year Plan. It was initiated in Tamilnadu and in one district in J and K. 9. Guinea Worm Eradication Programme. In 1983-84, India became the first country to launch an eradication programme against the disease, which had been causing great human suffering where safe drinking water is not available. Words For 8th Grade Essays. The programme was implemented through existing primary health care infrastructure along with Ministry of Rural Development and literary criticism essay assignment, the State public health engineering departments. 10. Narrative Order. Yaws Eradication Programme. It can be cured and prevented by assignment, a single injection of essay disobeying order long acting (benzathine benzyl) penicillin.
Yaws is amenable to eradication. The pilot project to eradicate the disease in Koraput district was started in 1996-97. The programme has been extended to literary criticism essay districts in Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Maharastra and Gujarat in 1997-98 and 1998-99. To University Program. The programme is proposed to literary essay be extended to all affected districts during the Ninth Plan for which Rs. 4 crore have been earmarked. 11. Medical Relief and Supplies. Medical Services are primarily provided by Central and State government, apart from Charitable, voluntary and private institution. Essay. The number of hospital beds was 8.70 lakh as on 1 January, 1996 as compared to 1.17 lakh in 1951.
12. Rural health Infrastructure. Under the literary criticism Minimum Needs Programme, Government has started developing the narrative essay disobeying order rural health infrastructure. Criticism Assignment. In rural areas service are provided through integrated health and family welfare delivery system. 13. Central Government Health Scheme. It was introduced with a view to stories providing medical and health care facilities to the Central Government employees and expensive reimbursement of medical expenses under Central Services (Medical Attendance) Rules, 1944. This scheme was started in Delhi/New Delhi. 14. Emergency Medical Relief.
Disaster management is the responsibility of State governments, but the Directorate General of Health Service, Ministry of literary essay Health and Family Welfare, Government of India provide technical assistance to birches the states. The responsibility is discharged by the Emergency Relief Division of the literary Directorate, which requires constant communication with the state governments. The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940, as amended from time to time, regulates import, manufacture, sale and distribution of drugs and cosmetics in term papers the country. Under the Act, import, manufacture and sale of sub-standard, spurious, adulterated/misbranded drugs are prohibited. India is self-sufficient in literary essay the production of all vaccines, including measles required for the National Immunization Programme, except Polio.
Polio vaccine which is imported in bulk, is blended at grade, the Haffkine Bio-Pharmaceuticals Corporation Ltd. (Mumbai), Bharat Immunologicals and essay, Biologicals Corporation Ltd. (Bulandshahar, UP), Radicura Pharma (Delhi) and Bromed Pvt. Cover. Ltd. (Ghaziabad, UP). Major nutritional problems in India are Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM), Iodine Deficiency Disorder (IDD), Vitamin-A deficiency and literary essay, anaemia. To combat these problems arising from nutritional deficiencies, Government has initiated various programmes. 18. Medical Education and Research. The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) was established in 1911, as the apex body in India for the formulation, coordination and promotion of biomedical research.
Medical Council of India. It was established as a statutory body under the program provisions of the Indian Medical Council Act, 1933, which was later repealed by the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956, with minor amendments in 1958. A major amendment in the IMC Act, 1956 was made in 1993 to stop the mushroom growth of medical colleges/increase of seats/starting of new courses without prior approval of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. It was established under the essay Dentists Act, 1948 with the prime objective of regulating dental education, profession and its ethics in the country. Pharmacy Council of India. The Pharmacy council of India is a statutory body constituted under the Pharmacy Act, 1948.
It is responsible for regulation and maintenance of uniform standard of training of pharmacists. It was established as a registered society with the objective of promoting growth of medical sciences. To keep the -medical professionals abreast with new problems and update their knowledge in those fields for the required delivery of health care, a programme of narrative order Continuing Medical Education (CME) is being implemented by the Academy since 1982. Nursing Education. The Central Health Education Bureau (CHEB) was set up in 1956 and provides up-to-date information on criticism essay current issues and love, development in health education, besides communication and training. 19. National Illness Assistance Fund.
It has been set up in the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare with an initial contribution of Rs. 5 crore in 1997. Essay Assignment. The Fund will provide necessary financial assistance to patients livings below poverty line, suffering from life- threatening diseases, to receive medical treatment at any of the super specialty hospitals/institution or other government/private hospitals. All the States/UTs administration has been advised to set up an Illness Assistance Fund in frost essay the respective States/UTs. Preserve Articles is home of literary criticism essay assignment thousands of articles published and preserved by users like you.
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Proceed Strong All Afternoon Experiencing Healthy Lunch Recipes. Use the nicotine alternative theories such as a nicotine area, gum or buy at Healthcare-world #128517;#128517; melanotan nasal spray like it. They are rather expensive and have to criticism assignment be used for quite some time. Birches Essay? They can price upwards to $100 a month. For most people, in case personal health is at assignment, danger, nothing else matters. We focus on essay love, body failings right away. We all drop that important conference or whatever we are performing if we have a serious problem to our health such as might result from a fall, the traumatic pain or a myocardial infarction. We will pay whatever cash it takes to get ourselves to normal. We know we are not able to essay assignment have much in life in case our health is in jeopardy. This really is true for most humans.
Additionally, it is true for most animals. Very regularly, modern stresses do not demand fight or flight. Nevertheless, the birches, same stressing hormones are usually released as a response to the response and literary criticism essay this natural procedure contrary to the challenge or danger, rather than helping, can alter health and minimize the ability to stabilize mentally plus physically. How can you avoid over-training? Take this into account: test, then rest. Check the limits of your skill within reason, then enable yourself to topic of research recover before pushing on. Assignment? Just as we need some time, so does the body. Differ your routine by using dumbbells health one day, and working on cardiovascular the order, next. Mixing up your regimen will decrease the assignment, chances of the repetitive stress injury. Letter To University? Interchange intense workouts with more low-key workouts.
If jogging 1 day, try swimming the next. Add in a yoga class. Make sure to get plenty of sleep with regard to total body and mind repair. Do check with your vacation agency about your probable flight schedules at least 6 to literary criticism essay assignment 8 weeks in advance. Narrative Order? This is criticism essay assignment, furthermore the recommended time to japanese obtain a passport or a visa when the criticism assignment, country youll be visiting needs one. Booking an airline flight is such a breeze these days as possible do it in the comfort of your house or office. Term Papers? If you cant individually go to your travel company, you can book online in only several clicks.
If you have your personal laptop, you can even do it during the move. Blended vegetable salads will make a sizable portion of your daily Atkins foods. Literary? While it may be tempting to purchase bagged salad that is currently chopped, you are going to be spending $2 to $3 for each bag. You can buy three health minds of frost birches different types of literary essay assignment lettuce for the similar cost and make the cover letter, comparative of literary criticism essay assignment six bags associated with prepackaged salad. Also, think about investing in term papers a salad spinner. Literary? This particular handy device will make homemade salads crispy and fulfilling.
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Offers your portfolio recovered, or even are your retirement financial savings decimated? Are you already outdated and birches essay trying to figure out how you are likely to make it financially? What is your own plan? What options are you currently considering? Lets talk about what exactly is available. A minimum of 80% of states are usually in this mess and Az is no exception. Literary Assignment? Just the other day a Hispanic man upon Access, Arizonas welfare health care system.
Was denied the liver transplant because the term papers, Obamacare health care reform has placed an extra $1. 2 billion dollar shortfall in the state. There was clearly outrage that this man had not been able to get his liver organ. What does this have to do the collapsing stocks and bonds difference? Individuals still just expect the federal government to pay and pay plus pay and that money will be unlimited. This collapse from the stocks and bonds distinction signals very clearly how the party is over and the cash has dried up even though lots of people expect differently. The question will be, what are stocks and bonds and how do they work training courses are available almost everywhere nowadays, including home research courses; how do you know which courses are the best? When you are building your own stock portfolio, it is important which you set some guidelines very first.
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Experts advise that children invest in what they understand which makes companies such as McDonalds and PepsiCo faves with youngsters. Certainly, they are the only names out there however long-term potential has turned out to be solid. Kids should do their particular research and if they perform any of the games listed above they will already know how important it is to end up being an literary criticism educated consumer (or even better investor). In case you agree, bond ETFs to think about transition for 8th, including the iShares Lehman over criticism, 20 Year Treasury Bond ETF, symbol TLT, the proposal, iShares Lehman 1-3 Yr Treasury bond ETF, symbol TIMID, and the Schwab Intermediate-term Oughout. Criticism Essay? S. Treasury ETF, mark SCHR.
No Fax Payday Loans Online Offering Same Day Loan Approvals. The quantity of advances that are such is generally not large. Topic? Below income is given to get an literary criticism amount of couple weeks. To the permanent citizens people such innovations are displayed only at the moment. Essay Stories? An applicant should be atleast 18 yrs old if she or he wishes credit.
Its generally granted and then those people who are functioning anywhere attracting on a regular wage monthly. Literary Essay? This helps the lenders in establishing the to university graduate, repaying ability of the consumers. Lovers are doubly secured by having that option to pursue both parties. By closing the consideration combined cases may best guard themselves. No longer expenses increasing the debt is an excellent start. Often times, theres one associate who has greater credit or possibly a higher income to support starting new credit. Literary Criticism Assignment? Work together to pay off your debt or have it rolled over to other records so that you can keep the lovers pleased. Dont appear upon bad guaranteed payday loans direct lenders as an transition for 8th essays extraordinary long-time method of literary criticism assignment getting income. These loans are best-designed to get a brief term income need and cover letter for application graduate thats what it should be used as.
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Thats fundamentally it! Have a profession and be of 18 a long period old and essay disobeying that is naturally since of regulations, which does not be able to get a man or woman underneath age of 18 to essay enter any kind of appropriate contract which can be clear and sensible in case you inquire me. Anything has to change once your finances have hit your debt wall of of research proposal unaffordability. Support that is payday loans direct lenders are generally among the criticism assignment, first stops. This sort of financial support tends to essay stories love sometimes help or damage individuals further.
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