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Compare contrast literature essay prompt

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[PPT]Writing a Compare/Contrast Essay About Literature

Business Intelligence Manager Resume Samples. The best examples from compare essay thousands of on classroom real-world resumes. Handpicked by compare literature essay resume experts based on rigorous standards. Tailored for various backgrounds and experience levels. Business Intelligence Managers work in the IT department of a company and are responsbile for managing the everyday business operations associated with BI, such as analytics, reporting, information delivery, data preparations, data exploration, and data warehousing. Main job requirements listed on a typical resume sample are extensive technical expertise and general business skills (communication, presentation, leadership, analytical thinking, etc.) Based on our resume samples, most candidates hold a degree in computer science, mathematics or business management. Looking for job listings? Check out our Business Intelligence Manager Jobs page.

Managed and developed reports to love, analyze sales and profitability results of the various brands sold to Department Stores and prompt, National Chains. Review The Book? Used analytics to review and compare statistical data to guide business decisions to help achieve sales goals and compare essay, inventory placement. Presented findings to senior management, sales and forecasting teams. Optimization analysis helped reduced assortment breadth by over 15% eliminating redundancies Sales analysis led to product placement in additional retailers based on results SKU analysis found opportunities in 5% of the assortment. Provided competitive intelligence and actionable insight to marketing and sales teams as well as C-level management by identifying drivers of customer satisfaction and loyalty, brand awareness and term, attitude, corporate website usage. Supervised a team of 4 analysts and developers, managed vendors and administered research budget. Designed and managed the marketing data warehouse project, within-budget and on schedule (Oracle 10g) Transitioned the marketing team from an intuition based to a fact-driven decision making culture Directed data mining projects addressing customer behavior insight, cost efficiency and profitability: churn prediction combined with customer valuation and segmentation resulting in 21% higher retention rates in course of literature a year Selected for steps, special departmental recognition and bonus for outstanding performance. Compare Contrast Literature Essay? National Account and Business Intelligence Manager.

Provided leadership and initiative to steps to solve, ensure services, delivery, research and project expectations were met or exceeded. Owned several national client relationships and served as the primary point of contact for all. Created business intelligence information and applications knowledge center for employees Assisted global consulting firm in the private equity auction of compare contrast [company name] Group Holdings, Inc. Managed project plans, scope, resources, change requests, risks and on consumption, issues to ensure that maximum Lead cross-functional project teams and contrast prompt, collaborated with business partners to essay love, determine and translate business requirements into technology and training solutions Grew existing $32MM National Account Portfolio 23% in four years Created and implemented operational strategies for the National Sales and essay, Marketing Department Co-created SharePoint intranet departmental site. Project Manager / Business Intelligence Manager. Orchestrated the expansion of business intelligence available to the executive and senior management of the SMB organization. Presented KPI (Key Performance Indicator) package and discussed strategic direction of business intelligence at SMB Sales Director's weekly meetings.

Represented SMB Operations in cross-functional special projects. Facilitated the review the book use of SMB Operations' resources for special projects as assigned. Conducted research and analysis on ongoing operational activities that included, but was not limited to, sales agent attrition rate modeling, relationship between tenure and agent productivity, and call volume forecasting accuracy. Providing marketing analysis that exceeded scope of compare literature essay prompt assigned project role and improved average revenue savings from $400K to $1Million, contributing to steps, success of pilot and enabling its adoption into the standard operational model of the SMB Sales environment. Developed and performed leadership role capacities outside of Operations title scope, as needed, such as marketing manager when determining best target criteria, sales coaching in overcoming customer objections revealed by contrast literature inquiry, and technical advisor when meeting systems requirements impacting overall program quality and effectiveness. Increased effectiveness of executive KPI deck by incorporating graphic representation of data and trends. Significantly improved system usability and availability of essay executive-level decision sensitive information by managing the transition of daily business intelligence updates to an on-demand web based format. Represented SMB operations in a cross functional pilot project by surveying a targeted portion of sales quoted customers who did not purchase, and contrast literature, utilizing the feedback to significantly reduce lost opportunity sales revenue. Ensured impacts to the available sales agent pool were accounted for and appropriate action plans were in place for SMB Operations groups, guaranteeing quality of borders essay standard service levels and customer satisfaction. Business Intelligence Manager - Finance. Led a team of multinational data scientists business intelligence analysts using Microsoft Business intelligence tools (SSRS, SSIS and SSAS).

Delivered over 600 reports analyses supporting key processes in Sales, Finance Operations. Improved technical skills horizontally vertically through training mentoring. Managed the organizational transition of the compare essay prompt team from the business to IT. Steps? Stakeholder for new enterprise data warehouse development project. Led a project team responsible for the data validation reconciliation on a migration project of 75,000 customers. IS Analyst/business Intelligence Manager. Application management for data warehouse and business intelligence applications. Analyzed data and compare, system. environments for papers on consumption, corporate mergers. Delivered business intelligence solutions utilizing the Cognos tool suite. Managed business intelligence projects for CRM (Customer Relationship Management) reporting data from Created user groups across multiple business units for compare literature prompt, decision support and knowledge sharing for business intelligence users. Developed enterprise and systems architectures, computer-based systems, IS Processes by using appropriate Educated personnel about new technologies and paper, techniques through informal interactions, formal presentations, and training sessions.

Enterprise Business Intelligence Manager. Directed development and ongoing maintenance of nine-terabyte Enterprise Data Warehouse. Developed data storage methodology, and compare contrast essay, established procedures that enabled real-time reporting. Essay Observations? Implemented enterprise report solution responsible for delivering over 3,000 reports to compare literature essay, internal and external customers daily. Designed and papers on consumption, executed SDLC methodology. Architected and developed e-commerce application, generating $3.6B in annual revenue. Developed tools to improve company's financial performance.

Implemented Business Objects, Crystal, and Cognos for internal use. Compare Contrast Literature Essay? Lead architect and review the book, developer for organization Data Warehouse and Reporting platform. Built a synchronized Data Warehouse and Reporting environment to support Goldman Sachs Administrator for all SQL Server reporting and warehouse databases. Designed and implemented a Summary Process using transactional replication, triggers, stored Developed stored procedures, functions and compare essay prompt, triggers involving complex business logic. Created and deployed source control platform on Team Foundation Server 2008 for all projects and steps problems, code Integrated SQL Server 2005 Reporting Services and SharePoint Server 2007. Executed the upgrade of all SQL Server 2005 platforms to SQL Server 2008.

Designed and contrast, built all Development, QA and Production Reporting Environments using SQL Server. Corporate Business Intelligence Manager. Handpicked to fulfill sales reporting projects to strategically consolidate the sales reporting and forecasting team. Envisioned and implemented a comprehensive five-year roadmap for the newly formed division. Reconciled the sales reporting and forecasting divisions by decreasing the headcount from 14 to 9 professionals. Initiated the development of an automated tool throughout the sales department within a two-month period serving as an integral role within the quota planning project; this tool is still in essay love place today. Attained yearly sales quota goals impacting 500+ sales associates within three months outshining previous colleagues through the automation of sales processes.

Honored with the contrast essay prompt Platinum Performer Award for outstanding leadership skills throughout tenure. Business Intelligence Manager. Create Dashboards, KPIs and other Operational Reporting through SQL Reporting Services. Develop, and maintain a Data Warehouse through the use of SSIS. Create a OLTP environment that is used as a central repository which pulls data from multiple databases used by borders thomas key departments of the organization to ensure a single point of compare contrast literature prompt reporting access. Meet with requestors to gain insight on reporting needs and translating those needs into on classroom observations business specific metrics and other reports.

Project lead on essay, the successful launch of SQL Server Reporting Services. Created current reporting data warehouse and use SQL Server Integration Services to refresh data. Developed multiple reporting cubes that are consumed through SharePoint intergration Promoted from Sr. Business Analyst of the Business office to AR Manager Promoted from AR Manager to Business Intelligence Manager. Essay? Free Professional Resume Critique. We have partnered with TopResume to bring you a FREE resume critique service.

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Compare/Contrast Essays | AP English Literature & Composition

How Did Economists Get It So Wrong? I. Contrast Prompt! MISTAKING BEAUTY FOR TRUTH. It’s hard to review the book, believe now, but not long ago economists were congratulating themselves over the success of compare contrast essay, their field. Those successes — or so they believed — were both theoretical and practical, leading to a golden era for the profession. On the theoretical side, they thought that they had resolved their internal disputes. Thus, in a 2008 paper titled “The State of stories, Macro” (that is, macroeconomics, the study of compare literature prompt, big-picture issues like recessions), Olivier Blanchard of M.I.T., now the chief economist at the International Monetary Fund, declared that “the state of macro is good.” The battles of yesteryear, he said, were over, and papers on consumption there had been a “broad convergence of vision.” And in the real world, economists believed they had things under control: the “central problem of depression-prevention has been solved,” declared Robert Lucas of the University of Chicago in his 2003 presidential address to the American Economic Association. In 2004, Ben Bernanke, a former Princeton professor who is now the chairman of the Federal Reserve Board, celebrated the Great Moderation in economic performance over contrast literature the previous two decades, which he attributed in part to improved economic policy making. Last year, everything came apart. Few economists saw our current crisis coming, but this predictive failure was the on classroom observations, least of the field’s problems. More important was the profession’s blindness to contrast literature, the very possibility of catastrophic failures in essay on classroom observations, a market economy.

During the golden years, financial economists came to believe that markets were inherently stable — indeed, that stocks and other assets were always priced just right. There was nothing in the prevailing models suggesting the possibility of the kind of collapse that happened last year. Meanwhile, macroeconomists were divided in their views. But the main division was between those who insisted that free-market economies never go astray and those who believed that economies may stray now and then but that any major deviations from the contrast prompt, path of prosperity could and would be corrected by the all-powerful Fed. Neither side was prepared to cope with an economy that went off the rails despite the Fed’s best efforts. And in the wake of the research paper, crisis, the compare essay, fault lines in the economics profession have yawned wider than ever.

Lucas says the Obama administration’s stimulus plans are “schlock economics,” and his Chicago colleague John Cochrane says they’re based on discredited “fairy tales.” In response, Brad DeLong of the University of California, Berkeley, writes of the “intellectual collapse” of the Chicago School, and on classroom I myself have written that comments from Chicago economists are the product of a Dark Age of macroeconomics in which hard-won knowledge has been forgotten. What happened to the economics profession? And where does it go from here? As I see it, the contrast literature essay prompt, economics profession went astray because economists, as a group, mistook beauty, clad in impressive-looking mathematics, for truth. Until the Great Depression, most economists clung to a vision of capitalism as a perfect or nearly perfect system. Observations! That vision wasn’t sustainable in compare contrast prompt, the face of mass unemployment, but as memories of the Depression faded, economists fell back in love with the borders essay thomas, old, idealized vision of an economy in which rational individuals interact in perfect markets, this time gussied up with fancy equations. The renewed romance with the idealized market was, to be sure, partly a response to shifting political winds, partly a response to financial incentives. But while sabbaticals at the Hoover Institution and job opportunities on Wall Street are nothing to sneeze at, the central cause of the profession’s failure was the desire for an all-encompassing, intellectually elegant approach that also gave economists a chance to show off their mathematical prowess. Unfortunately, this romanticized and sanitized vision of the economy led most economists to ignore all the things that can go wrong.

They turned a blind eye to the limitations of human rationality that often lead to bubbles and busts; to the problems of institutions that run amok; to contrast literature essay, the imperfections of markets — especially financial markets — that can cause the economy’s operating system to undergo sudden, unpredictable crashes; and to the dangers created when regulators don’t believe in problems, regulation. It’s much harder to say where the prompt, economics profession goes from observations here. But what’s almost certain is that economists will have to learn to live with messiness. That is, they will have to acknowledge the literature essay prompt, importance of irrational and often unpredictable behavior, face up to the often idiosyncratic imperfections of markets and accept that an elegant economic “theory of everything” is a long way off. In practical terms, this will translate into more cautious policy advice — and a reduced willingness to dismantle economic safeguards in steps to solve problems, the faith that markets will solve all problems. II. Compare Literature Prompt! FROM SMITH TO KEYNES AND BACK. The birth of review the book, economics as a discipline is usually credited to compare contrast essay prompt, Adam Smith, who published “The Wealth of Nations” in 1776. Over the next 160 years an extensive body of economic theory was developed, whose central message was: Trust the market.

Yes, economists admitted that there were cases in term on consumption, which markets might fail, of which the most important was the case of “externalities” — costs that people impose on others without paying the price, like traffic congestion or pollution. Compare Contrast Essay Prompt! But the basic presumption of observations, “neoclassical” economics (named after the late-19th-century theorists who elaborated on literature prompt, the concepts of their “classical” predecessors) was that we should have faith in the market system. This faith was, however, shattered by problems the Great Depression. Compare Literature Prompt! Actually, even in planchette, the face of total collapse some economists insisted that whatever happens in a market economy must be right: “Depressions are not simply evils,” declared Joseph Schumpeter in 1934 — 1934! They are, he added, “forms of something which has to be done.” But many, and eventually most, economists turned to essay, the insights of John Maynard Keynes for both an term papers, explanation of what had happened and a solution to future depressions. Keynes did not, despite what you may have heard, want the government to run the economy. He described his analysis in his 1936 masterwork, “The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money,” as “moderately conservative in its implications.” He wanted to contrast essay prompt, fix capitalism, not replace it. But he did challenge the notion that free-market economies can function without a minder, expressing particular contempt for steps to solve problems, financial markets, which he viewed as being dominated by short-term speculation with little regard for fundamentals.

And he called for active government intervention — printing more money and, if necessary, spending heavily on compare literature prompt, public works — to fight unemployment during slumps. It’s important to understand that Keynes did much more than make bold assertions. “The General Theory” is a work of profound, deep analysis — analysis that persuaded the best young economists of the day. Borders Essay King! Yet the compare, story of economics over the past half century is, to a large degree, the story of a retreat from Keynesianism and a return to neoclassicism. The neoclassical revival was initially led by Milton Friedman of the term on consumption, University of Chicago, who asserted as early as 1953 that neoclassical economics works well enough as a description of the way the economy actually functions to be “both extremely fruitful and deserving of much confidence.” But what about depressions? Friedman’s counterattack against Keynes began with the prompt, doctrine known as monetarism. Monetarists didn’t disagree in love, principle with the idea that a market economy needs deliberate stabilization. “We are all Keynesians now,” Friedman once said, although he later claimed he was quoted out of compare essay prompt, context. Monetarists asserted, however, that a very limited, circumscribed form of government intervention — namely, instructing central banks to keep the nation’s money supply, the sum of observations, cash in circulation and bank deposits, growing on compare prompt, a steady path — is all that’s required to term, prevent depressions.

Famously, Friedman and compare prompt his collaborator, Anna Schwartz, argued that if the borders essay, Federal Reserve had done its job properly, the Great Depression would not have happened. Later, Friedman made a compelling case against any deliberate effort by government to push unemployment below its “natural” level (currently thought to be about 4.8 percent in the United States): excessively expansionary policies, he predicted, would lead to compare contrast literature essay prompt, a combination of inflation and high unemployment — a prediction that was borne out by the stagflation of the 1970s, which greatly advanced the essay stories love, credibility of the anti-Keynesian movement. Eventually, however, the anti-Keynesian counterrevolution went far beyond Friedman’s position, which came to seem relatively moderate compared with what his successors were saying. Literature Essay Prompt! Among financial economists, Keynes’s disparaging vision of financial markets as a “casino” was replaced by planchette “efficient market” theory, which asserted that financial markets always get asset prices right given the available information. Meanwhile, many macroeconomists completely rejected Keynes’s framework for understanding economic slumps. Some returned to the view of Schumpeter and other apologists for the Great Depression, viewing recessions as a good thing, part of the compare contrast literature essay, economy’s adjustment to change.

And even those not willing to go that far argued that any attempt to fight an economic slump would do more harm than good. Not all macroeconomists were willing to go down this road: many became self-described New Keynesians, who continued to believe in review the book, an active role for the government. Yet even they mostly accepted the compare contrast literature prompt, notion that investors and consumers are rational and that markets generally get it right. Of course, there were exceptions to these trends: a few economists challenged the observations, assumption of rational behavior, questioned the belief that financial markets can be trusted and pointed to the long history of financial crises that had devastating economic consequences. But they were swimming against contrast prompt the tide, unable to make much headway against a pervasive and, in retrospect, foolish complacency. In the review the book, 1930s, financial markets, for obvious reasons, didn’t get much respect. Keynes compared them to “those newspaper competitions in which the competitors have to compare contrast essay prompt, pick out the to solve problems, six prettiest faces from a hundred photographs, the prize being awarded to the competitor whose choice most nearly corresponds to the average preferences of the competitors as a whole; so that each competitor has to contrast literature essay prompt, pick, not those faces which he himself finds prettiest, but those that he thinks likeliest to catch the fancy of the other competitors.” And Keynes considered it a very bad idea to let such markets, in which speculators spent their time chasing one another’s tails, dictate important business decisions: “When the capital development of a country becomes a by-product of the activities of a casino, the job is likely to be ill-done.” By 1970 or so, however, the study of financial markets seemed to essay on classroom observations, have been taken over by contrast literature essay prompt Voltaire’s Dr.

Pangloss, who insisted that we live in the best of all possible worlds. Discussion of investor irrationality, of bubbles, of destructive speculation had virtually disappeared from academic discourse. The field was dominated by the “efficient-market hypothesis,” promulgated by essay Eugene Fama of the compare contrast prompt, University of Chicago, which claims that financial markets price assets precisely at their intrinsic worth given all publicly available information. On Classroom Observations! (The price of a company’s stock, for example, always accurately reflects the company’s value given the information available on the company’s earnings, its business prospects and compare contrast literature prompt so on.) And by the 1980s, finance economists, notably Michael Jensen of the Harvard Business School, were arguing that because financial markets always get prices right, the best thing corporate chieftains can do, not just for themselves but for the sake of the economy, is to maximize their stock prices. In other words, finance economists believed that we should put the capital development of the term, nation in the hands of what Keynes had called a “casino.” It’s hard to argue that this transformation in the profession was driven by events. True, the compare contrast literature essay, memory of 1929 was gradually receding, but there continued to be bull markets, with widespread tales of speculative excess, followed by bear markets. In 1973-4, for example, stocks lost 48 percent of their value.

And the 1987 stock crash, in which the Dow plunged nearly 23 percent in a day for no clear reason, should have raised at least a few doubts about market rationality. These events, however, which Keynes would have considered evidence of the unreliability of markets, did little to blunt the force of a beautiful idea. The theoretical model that finance economists developed by assuming that every investor rationally balances risk against review the book reward — the compare, so-called Capital Asset Pricing Model, or CAPM (pronounced cap-em) — is wonderfully elegant. And if you accept its premises it’s also extremely useful. CAPM not only tells you how to choose your portfolio — even more important from the financial industry’s point of view, it tells you how to put a price on financial derivatives, claims on steps to solve problems, claims. The elegance and contrast prompt apparent usefulness of the new theory led to essay stories love, a string of Nobel prizes for its creators, and many of the theory’s adepts also received more mundane rewards: Armed with their new models and formidable math skills — the more arcane uses of compare, CAPM require physicist-level computations — mild-mannered business-school professors could and did become Wall Street rocket scientists, earning Wall Street paychecks. To be fair, finance theorists didn’t accept the efficient-market hypothesis merely because it was elegant, convenient and papers on consumption lucrative. They also produced a great deal of statistical evidence, which at first seemed strongly supportive. But this evidence was of an oddly limited form. Finance economists rarely asked the seemingly obvious (though not easily answered) question of whether asset prices made sense given real-world fundamentals like earnings.

Instead, they asked only whether asset prices made sense given other asset prices. Larry Summers, now the top economic adviser in literature essay, the Obama administration, once mocked finance professors with a parable about “ketchup economists” who “have shown that two-quart bottles of ketchup invariably sell for exactly twice as much as one-quart bottles of ketchup,” and conclude from this that the ketchup market is perfectly efficient. But neither this mockery nor more polite critiques from review the book economists like Robert Shiller of Yale had much effect. Contrast Prompt! Finance theorists continued to believe that their models were essentially right, and so did many people making real-world decisions. Not least among these was Alan Greenspan, who was then the Fed chairman and a long-time supporter of financial deregulation whose rejection of research, calls to compare contrast literature, rein in subprime lending or address the ever-inflating housing bubble rested in essay observations, large part on the belief that modern financial economics had everything under control. Compare Essay! There was a telling moment in 2005, at a conference held to planchette paper, honor Greenspan’s tenure at compare contrast literature essay the Fed. One brave attendee, Raghuram Rajan (of the University of Chicago, surprisingly), presented a paper warning that the king, financial system was taking on potentially dangerous levels of risk. He was mocked by almost all present — including, by essay prompt the way, Larry Summers, who dismissed his warnings as “misguided.” By October of essay stories, last year, however, Greenspan was admitting that he was in a state of “shocked disbelief,” because “the whole intellectual edifice” had “collapsed.” Since this collapse of the intellectual edifice was also a collapse of real-world markets, the result was a severe recession — the worst, by many measures, since the compare prompt, Great Depression. What should policy makers do?

Unfortunately, macroeconomics, which should have been providing clear guidance about how to address the slumping economy, was in its own state of disarray. “We have involved ourselves in a colossal muddle, having blundered in the control of planchette research paper, a delicate machine, the working of which we do not understand. The result is that our possibilities of wealth may run to waste for a time — perhaps for a long time.” So wrote John Maynard Keynes in an essay titled “The Great Slump of 1930,” in which he tried to explain the catastrophe then overtaking the compare contrast literature essay, world. And the world’s possibilities of wealth did indeed run to waste for a long time; it took World War II to bring the essay, Great Depression to a definitive end. Why was Keynes’s diagnosis of the Great Depression as a “colossal muddle” so compelling at first? And why did economics, circa 1975, divide into opposing camps over the value of Keynes’s views? I like to explain the essence of compare contrast literature essay prompt, Keynesian economics with a true story that also serves as a parable, a small-scale version of the messes that can afflict entire economies. Paper! Consider the travails of the Capitol Hill Baby-Sitting Co-op. This co-op, whose problems were recounted in a 1977 article in The Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, was an association of about 150 young couples who agreed to help one another by literature baby-sitting for one another’s children when parents wanted a night out.

To ensure that every couple did its fair share of baby-sitting, the co-op introduced a form of scrip: coupons made out of heavy pieces of paper, each entitling the bearer to one half-hour of sitting time. Initially, members received 20 coupons on joining and were required to return the same amount on departing the review the book, group. Unfortunately, it turned out compare literature prompt, that the co-op’s members, on average, wanted to essay stories, hold a reserve of more than 20 coupons, perhaps, in case they should want to go out several times in a row. As a result, relatively few people wanted to spend their scrip and go out, while many wanted to baby-sit so they could add to their hoard. But since baby-sitting opportunities arise only compare contrast essay when someone goes out for the night, this meant that baby-sitting jobs were hard to find, which made members of the co-op even more reluctant to go out, making baby-sitting jobs even scarcer. . Planchette! . . In short, the co-op fell into a recession. O.K., what do you think of this story? Don’t dismiss it as silly and compare contrast essay prompt trivial: economists have used small-scale examples to shed light on big questions ever since Adam Smith saw the roots of stories, economic progress in a pin factory, and they’re right to do so. The question is whether this particular example, in compare essay prompt, which a recession is a problem of to solve, inadequate demand — there isn’t enough demand for baby-sitting to provide jobs for everyone who wants one — gets at the essence of compare contrast, what happens in a recession. Forty years ago most economists would have agreed with this interpretation. But since then macroeconomics has divided into two great factions: “saltwater” economists (mainly in coastal U.S. universities), who have a more or less Keynesian vision of what recessions are all about; and “freshwater” economists (mainly at inland schools), who consider that vision nonsense. Freshwater economists are, essentially, neoclassical purists.

They believe that all worthwhile economic analysis starts from the planchette, premise that people are rational and contrast essay markets work, a premise violated by king the story of the baby-sitting co-op. As they see it, a general lack of sufficient demand isn’t possible, because prices always move to match supply with demand. If people want more baby-sitting coupons, the value of those coupons will rise, so that they’re worth, say, 40 minutes of baby-sitting rather than half an hour — or, equivalently, the cost of an hours’ baby-sitting would fall from 2 coupons to 1.5. And that would solve the contrast literature, problem: the purchasing power of the coupons in circulation would have risen, so that people would feel no need to hoard more, and planchette research paper there would be no recession. But don’t recessions look like periods in contrast literature, which there just isn’t enough demand to employ everyone willing to work? Appearances can be deceiving, say the freshwater theorists. Sound economics, in their view, says that overall failures of demand can’t happen — and that means that they don’t.

Keynesian economics has been “proved false,” Cochrane, of the planchette paper, University of Chicago, says. Yet recessions do happen. Why? In the 1970s the leading freshwater macroeconomist, the essay prompt, Nobel laureate Robert Lucas, argued that recessions were caused by temporary confusion: workers and review the book companies had trouble distinguishing overall changes in literature prompt, the level of planchette paper, prices because of inflation or deflation from changes in their own particular business situation. And Lucas warned that any attempt to fight the contrast literature essay, business cycle would be counterproductive: activist policies, he argued, would just add to the confusion. By the 1980s, however, even this severely limited acceptance of the idea that recessions are bad things had been rejected by many freshwater economists. Instead, the new leaders of the movement, especially Edward Prescott, who was then at the University of Minnesota (you can see where the freshwater moniker comes from), argued that price fluctuations and changes in demand actually had nothing to term on consumption, do with the compare, business cycle. Rather, the business cycle reflects fluctuations in the rate of technological progress, which are amplified by observations the rational response of workers, who voluntarily work more when the contrast literature essay, environment is love, favorable and less when it’s unfavorable. Unemployment is a deliberate decision by workers to take time off. Put baldly like that, this theory sounds foolish — was the Great Depression really the Great Vacation?

And to contrast essay prompt, be honest, I think it really is silly. But the basic premise of Prescott’s “real business cycle” theory was embedded in planchette research, ingeniously constructed mathematical models, which were mapped onto real data using sophisticated statistical techniques, and the theory came to dominate the teaching of macroeconomics in many university departments. Compare Literature Prompt! In 2004, reflecting the theory’s influence, Prescott shared a Nobel with Finn Kydland of Carnegie Mellon University. Meanwhile, saltwater economists balked. Steps! Where the compare literature essay, freshwater economists were purists, saltwater economists were pragmatists. While economists like N. To Solve! Gregory Mankiw at Harvard, Olivier Blanchard at compare contrast prompt M.I.T. and David Romer at the University of California, Berkeley, acknowledged that it was hard to reconcile a Keynesian demand-side view of recessions with neoclassical theory, they found the evidence that recessions are, in fact, demand-driven too compelling to problems, reject.

So they were willing to deviate from the assumption of perfect markets or perfect rationality, or both, adding enough imperfections to accommodate a more or less Keynesian view of recessions. And in the saltwater view, active policy to contrast literature prompt, fight recessions remained desirable. But the self-described New Keynesian economists weren’t immune to problems, the charms of rational individuals and perfect markets. They tried to keep their deviations from compare essay neoclassical orthodoxy as limited as possible. This meant that there was no room in review the book, the prevailing models for such things as bubbles and banking-system collapse. The fact that such things continued to happen in the real world — there was a terrible financial and macroeconomic crisis in much of Asia in 1997-8 and a depression-level slump in Argentina in contrast essay, 2002 — wasn’t reflected in the mainstream of New Keynesian thinking. Even so, you might have thought that the differing worldviews of freshwater and saltwater economists would have put them constantly at loggerheads over economic policy. Somewhat surprisingly, however, between around 1985 and 2007 the paper, disputes between freshwater and saltwater economists were mainly about contrast prompt theory, not action.

The reason, I believe, is that New Keynesians, unlike the essay love, original Keynesians, didn’t think fiscal policy — changes in government spending or taxes — was needed to fight recessions. They believed that monetary policy, administered by contrast prompt the technocrats at the Fed, could provide whatever remedies the economy needed. Planchette! At a 90th birthday celebration for Milton Friedman, Ben Bernanke, formerly a more or less New Keynesian professor at Princeton, and by then a member of the compare contrast literature essay prompt, Fed’s governing board, declared of the Great Depression: “You’re right. We did it. We’re very sorry. Borders Thomas! But thanks to you, it won’t happen again.” The clear message was that all you need to avoid depressions is compare contrast literature prompt, a smarter Fed. And as long as macroeconomic policy was left in the hands of the maestro Greenspan, without Keynesian-type stimulus programs, freshwater economists found little to complain about. To Solve! (They didn’t believe that monetary policy did any good, but they didn’t believe it did any harm, either.) An error has occurred. Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email.

It would take a crisis to reveal both how little common ground there was and essay prompt how Panglossian even New Keynesian economics had become. In recent, rueful economics discussions, an all-purpose punch line has become “nobody could have predicted. Papers On Consumption! . . Literature Prompt! .” It’s what you say with regard to disasters that could have been predicted, should have been predicted and actually were predicted by borders king a few economists who were scoffed at for their pains. Take, for example, the compare essay, precipitous rise and term papers fall of housing prices. Some economists, notably Robert Shiller, did identify the bubble and warn of painful consequences if it were to burst. Yet key policy makers failed to see the obvious. Compare Contrast Literature Essay Prompt! In 2004, Alan Greenspan dismissed talk of a housing bubble: “a national severe price distortion,” he declared, was “most unlikely.” Home-price increases, Ben Bernanke said in 2005, “largely reflect strong economic fundamentals.” How did they miss the bubble? To be fair, interest rates were unusually low, possibly explaining part of the price rise. Borders King! It may be that Greenspan and Bernanke also wanted to celebrate the Fed’s success in pulling the economy out of the 2001 recession; conceding that much of contrast prompt, that success rested on the creation of steps, a monstrous bubble would have placed a damper on the festivities. But there was something else going on: a general belief that bubbles just don’t happen. What’s striking, when you reread Greenspan’s assurances, is compare contrast literature prompt, that they weren’t based on evidence — they were based on the a priori assertion that there simply can’t be a bubble in stories, housing.

And the compare contrast literature essay prompt, finance theorists were even more adamant on this point. In a 2007 interview, Eugene Fama, the father of the essay on classroom observations, efficient-market hypothesis, declared that “the word ‘bubble’ drives me nuts,” and went on to explain why we can trust the housing market: “Housing markets are less liquid, but people are very careful when they buy houses. It’s typically the biggest investment they’re going to literature essay prompt, make, so they look around very carefully and they compare prices. The bidding process is very detailed.” Indeed, home buyers generally do carefully compare prices — that is, they compare the price of their potential purchase with the prices of steps, other houses. But this says nothing about whether the overall price of houses is justified. It’s ketchup economics, again: because a two-quart bottle of compare contrast literature essay, ketchup costs twice as much as a one-quart bottle, finance theorists declare that the price of on classroom observations, ketchup must be right. In short, the belief in efficient financial markets blinded many if not most economists to the emergence of the biggest financial bubble in history.

And efficient-market theory also played a significant role in inflating that bubble in the first place. Now that the undiagnosed bubble has burst, the true riskiness of supposedly safe assets has been revealed and the financial system has demonstrated its fragility. U.S. Compare Prompt! households have seen $13 trillion in wealth evaporate. More than six million jobs have been lost, and the unemployment rate appears headed for its highest level since 1940. So what guidance does modern economics have to steps to solve problems, offer in our current predicament? And should we trust it? Between 1985 and 2007 a false peace settled over the field of macroeconomics. There hadn’t been any real convergence of views between the saltwater and freshwater factions. Compare Contrast Essay! But these were the years of the Great Moderation — an extended period during which inflation was subdued and recessions were relatively mild.

Saltwater economists believed that the Federal Reserve had everything under control. Fresh­water economists didn’t think the Fed’s actions were actually beneficial, but they were willing to let matters lie. But the crisis ended the term on consumption, phony peace. Suddenly the narrow, technocratic policies both sides were willing to accept were no longer sufficient — and the need for a broader policy response brought the old conflicts out into the open, fiercer than ever. Why weren’t those narrow, technocratic policies sufficient? The answer, in contrast prompt, a word, is zero. During a normal recession, the Fed responds by buying Treasury bills — short-term government debt — from banks. This drives interest rates on government debt down; investors seeking a higher rate of return move into other assets, driving other interest rates down as well; and normally these lower interest rates eventually lead to an economic bounceback.

The Fed dealt with the recession that began in 1990 by driving short-term interest rates from 9 percent down to 3 percent. It dealt with the recession that began in 2001 by driving rates from 6.5 percent to 1 percent. And it tried to deal with the current recession by driving rates down from 5.25 percent to zero. But zero, it turned out, isn’t low enough to end this recession. Problems! And the Fed can’t push rates below zero, since at essay near-zero rates investors simply hoard cash rather than lending it out. Essay Love! So by late 2008, with interest rates basically at what macroeconomists call the “zero lower bound” even as the recession continued to deepen, conventional monetary policy had lost all traction. Now what? This is the second time America has been up against the zero lower bound, the previous occasion being the Great Depression. And it was precisely the observation that there’s a lower bound to interest rates that led Keynes to advocate higher government spending: when monetary policy is contrast literature essay, ineffective and the private sector can’t be persuaded to spend more, the papers on consumption, public sector must take its place in supporting the economy. Fiscal stimulus is the Keynesian answer to the kind of depression-type economic situation we’re currently in.

Such Keynesian thinking underlies the Obama administration’s economic policies — and the freshwater economists are furious. For 25 or so years they tolerated the Fed’s efforts to literature essay, manage the economy, but a full-blown Keynesian resurgence was something entirely different. Back in 1980, Lucas, of the University of Chicago, wrote that Keynesian economics was so ludicrous that “at research seminars, people don’t take Keynesian theorizing seriously anymore; the audience starts to whisper and giggle to one another.” Admitting that Keynes was largely right, after all, would be too humiliating a comedown. And so Chicago’s Cochrane, outraged at the idea that government spending could mitigate the latest recession, declared: “It’s not part of essay stories, what anybody has taught graduate students since the 1960s. They [Keynesian ideas] are fairy tales that have been proved false.

It is very comforting in times of stress to go back to the fairy tales we heard as children, but it doesn’t make them less false.” (It’s a mark of compare literature, how deep the division between saltwater and freshwater runs that Cochrane doesn’t believe that “anybody” teaches ideas that are, in fact, taught in places like Princeton, M.I.T. and observations Harvard.) Meanwhile, saltwater economists, who had comforted themselves with the belief that the great divide in macroeconomics was narrowing, were shocked to realize that freshwater economists hadn’t been listening at all. Contrast Essay! Freshwater economists who inveighed against the stimulus didn’t sound like scholars who had weighed Keynesian arguments and borders thomas found them wanting. Rather, they sounded like people who had no idea what Keynesian economics was about, who were resurrecting pre-1930 fallacies in the belief that they were saying something new and profound. And it wasn’t just Keynes whose ideas seemed to have been forgotten. Compare Contrast Literature Prompt! As Brad DeLong of the University of California, Berkeley, has pointed out in his laments about the Chicago school’s “intellectual collapse,” the research paper, school’s current stance amounts to a wholesale rejection of Milton Friedman’s ideas, as well. Friedman believed that Fed policy rather than changes in government spending should be used to contrast essay prompt, stabilize the economy, but he never asserted that an increase in term papers, government spending cannot, under any circumstances, increase employment. In fact, rereading Friedman’s 1970 summary of his ideas, “A Theoretical Framework for compare literature prompt, Monetary Analysis,” what’s striking is how Keynesian it seems.

And Friedman certainly never bought into the idea that mass unemployment represents a voluntary reduction in work effort or the idea that recessions are actually good for the economy. Steps To Solve! Yet the compare literature prompt, current generation of freshwater economists has been making both arguments. Thus Chicago’s Casey Mulligan suggests that unemployment is so high because many workers are choosing not to take jobs: “Employees face financial incentives that encourage them not to observations, work . . . decreased employment is explained more by reductions in the supply of labor (the willingness of people to compare literature, work) and less by the demand for review the book, labor (the number of workers that employers need to hire).” Mulligan has suggested, in particular, that workers are choosing to remain unemployed because that improves their odds of compare contrast literature essay prompt, receiving mortgage relief. And Cochrane declares that high unemployment is actually good: “We should have a recession. People who spend their lives pounding nails in Nevada need something else to do.” Personally, I think this is borders essay thomas king, crazy.

Why should it take mass unemployment across the essay, whole nation to get carpenters to move out of Nevada? Can anyone seriously claim that we’ve lost 6.7 million jobs because fewer Americans want to work? But it was inevitable that freshwater economists would find themselves trapped in this cul-de-sac: if you start from the assumption that people are perfectly rational and markets are perfectly efficient, you have to conclude that unemployment is voluntary and recessions are desirable. Yet if the crisis has pushed freshwater economists into absurdity, it has also created a lot of soul-searching among saltwater economists. Their framework, unlike that of the Chicago School, both allows for the possibility of involuntary unemployment and considers it a bad thing. But the New Keynesian models that have come to love, dominate teaching and compare literature essay research assume that people are perfectly rational and financial markets are perfectly efficient.

To get anything like the current slump into their models, New Keynesians are forced to introduce some kind of planchette paper, fudge factor that for reasons unspecified temporarily depresses private spending. (I’ve done exactly that in some of my own work.) And if the analysis of where we are now rests on this fudge factor, how much confidence can we have in the models’ predictions about where we are going? The state of macro, in contrast literature essay prompt, short, is not good. So where does the profession go from here? Economics, as a field, got in stories love, trouble because economists were seduced by the vision of compare contrast essay prompt, a perfect, frictionless market system. If the profession is to redeem itself, it will have to reconcile itself to a less alluring vision — that of a market economy that has many virtues but that is borders essay thomas, also shot through with flaws and frictions. Contrast Essay! The good news is that we don’t have to start from scratch. Observations! Even during the heyday of perfect-market economics, there was a lot of work done on the ways in which the real economy deviated from the theoretical ideal.

What’s probably going to contrast essay prompt, happen now — in fact, it’s already happening — is that flaws-and-frictions economics will move from the periphery of economic analysis to its center. There’s already a fairly well developed example of the kind of economics I have in mind: the term papers, school of thought known as behavioral finance. Practitioners of this approach emphasize two things. First, many real-world investors bear little resemblance to the cool calculators of efficient-market theory: they’re all too subject to herd behavior, to bouts of irrational exuberance and unwarranted panic. Second, even those who try to base their decisions on cool calculation often find that they can’t, that problems of trust, credibility and limited collateral force them to run with the herd. On the first point: even during the heyday of the efficient-market hypothesis, it seemed obvious that many real-world investors aren’t as rational as the prevailing models assumed. Larry Summers once began a paper on finance by compare contrast declaring: “THERE ARE IDIOTS. Look around.” But what kind of idiots (the preferred term in the academic literature, actually, is papers, “noise traders”) are we talking about? Behavioral finance, drawing on the broader movement known as behavioral economics, tries to answer that question by relating the compare essay, apparent irrationality of investors to known biases in human cognition, like the thomas, tendency to care more about compare essay prompt small losses than small gains or the planchette paper, tendency to contrast, extrapolate too readily from small samples (e.g., assuming that because home prices rose in the past few years, they’ll keep on borders essay king, rising). Until the crisis, efficient-market advocates like Eugene Fama dismissed the evidence produced on behalf of behavioral finance as a collection of “curiosity items” of no real importance. That’s a much harder position to maintain now that the collapse of a vast bubble — a bubble correctly diagnosed by behavioral economists like Robert Shiller of Yale, who related it to past episodes of “irrational exuberance” — has brought the compare prompt, world economy to its knees.

On the second point: suppose that there are, indeed, idiots. Essay On Classroom! How much do they matter? Not much, argued Milton Friedman in an influential 1953 paper: smart investors will make money by buying when the compare essay, idiots sell and selling when they buy and will stabilize markets in the process. But the second strand of behavioral finance says that Friedman was wrong, that financial markets are sometimes highly unstable, and right now that view seems hard to stories love, reject. Probably the compare prompt, most influential paper in planchette research paper, this vein was a 1997 publication by Andrei Shleifer of Harvard and Robert Vishny of Chicago, which amounted to a formalization of the compare literature prompt, old line that “the market can stay irrational longer than you can stay solvent.” As they pointed out, arbitrageurs — the people who are supposed to buy low and review the book sell high — need capital to do their jobs. And a severe plunge in compare prompt, asset prices, even if it makes no sense in terms of fundamentals, tends to borders essay king, deplete that capital. As a result, the compare contrast essay prompt, smart money is forced out review the book, of the market, and prices may go into a downward spiral. The spread of the current financial crisis seemed almost like an object lesson in the perils of financial instability.

And the general ideas underlying models of financial instability have proved highly relevant to economic policy: a focus on the depleted capital of financial institutions helped guide policy actions taken after the fall of Lehman, and it looks (cross your fingers) as if these actions successfully headed off an even bigger financial collapse. Meanwhile, what about macroeconomics? Recent events have pretty decisively refuted the contrast prompt, idea that recessions are an optimal response to fluctuations in the rate of technological progress; a more or less Keynesian view is the papers on consumption, only plausible game in town. Yet standard New Keynesian models left no room for a crisis like the one we’re having, because those models generally accepted the efficient-market view of the financial sector. There were some exceptions.

One line of work, pioneered by none other than Ben Bernanke working with Mark Gertler of New York University, emphasized the essay prompt, way the lack of sufficient collateral can hinder the ability of businesses to to solve, raise funds and pursue investment opportunities. Literature! A related line of borders thomas, work, largely established by my Princeton colleague Nobuhiro Kiyotaki and John Moore of the London School of Economics, argued that prices of assets such as real estate can suffer self-reinforcing plunges that in turn depress the economy as a whole. But until now the impact of dysfunctional finance hasn’t been at the core even of Keynesian economics. Contrast Literature! Clearly, that has to change. So here’s what I think economists have to do. First, they have to face up to the inconvenient reality that financial markets fall far short of perfection, that they are subject to problems, extraordinary delusions and the madness of crowds. Compare! Second, they have to review the book, admit — and this will be very hard for the people who giggled and whispered over Keynes — that Keynesian economics remains the contrast essay prompt, best framework we have for making sense of recessions and depressions.

Third, they’ll have to do their best to incorporate the realities of finance into macroeconomics. Many economists will find these changes deeply disturbing. It will be a long time, if ever, before the planchette research paper, new, more realistic approaches to finance and macroeconomics offer the same kind of clarity, completeness and sheer beauty that characterizes the full neoclassical approach. Contrast Essay! To some economists that will be a reason to cling to neoclassicism, despite its utter failure to make sense of the paper, greatest economic crisis in three generations. This seems, however, like a good time to recall the compare contrast literature essay, words of stories love, H. Compare Prompt! L. Mencken: “There is always an easy solution to every human problem — neat, plausible and wrong.” When it comes to the all-too-human problem of recessions and on classroom observations depressions, economists need to compare contrast literature prompt, abandon the neat but wrong solution of stories love, assuming that everyone is compare contrast essay, rational and markets work perfectly. The vision that emerges as the profession rethinks its foundations may not be all that clear; it certainly won’t be neat; but we can hope that it will have the virtue of being at essay thomas king least partly right. Because of an editing error, an article on Page 36 this weekend about the failure of compare essay prompt, economists to anticipate the latest recession misquotes the planchette paper, economist John Maynard Keynes, who compared the financial markets of the 1930s to compare literature essay prompt, newspaper beauty contests in papers on consumption, which readers tried to correctly pick all six eventual winners. Keynes noted that a competitor did not have to pick “those faces which he himself finds prettiest, but those that he thinks likeliest to catch the fancy of the other competitors.” He did not say, “nor even those that he thinks likeliest to catch the fancy of compare prompt, other competitors.” Paul Krugman is a Times Op-Ed columnist and winner of the 2008 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science. His latest book is “The Return of Depression Economics and the Crisis of 2008.”

A version of this article appears in print on , on research paper, Page MM36 of the essay prompt, Sunday Magazine with the headline: How Did Economists Get it So Wrong?. Today's Paper | Subscribe. We’re interested in review the book, your feedback on this page. Contrast Essay! Tell us what you think.

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The University of British Columbia. On efficient recommendations for online exchange markets. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Metadata services for the Parallax storage system. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11.

Assisting bug report triage through recommendation. Degree : Doctor of Philosophy - PhD. Graduation Date : 2008-05. A key collaborative hub for many software development projects is the issue tracking system, or bug repository. Compare Literature Essay Prompt. The use of a bug repository can improve the software development process in review the book, a number of ways including allowing developers who are geographically distributed to communicate about project development. Contrast Literature. However, reports added to the repository need to be triaged by a human, called the triager, to paper, determine if reports are meaningful. If a report is compare prompt meaningful, the triager decides how to organize the review the book report for integration into the project's development process.

We call triager decisions with the goal of determining if a report is literature essay prompt meaningful, repository-oriented decisions, and triager decisions that organize reports for the development process, development-oriented decisions. Triagers can become overwhelmed by the number of reports added to borders essay king, the repository. Time spent triaging also typically diverts valuable resources away from the improvement of the product to the managing of the development process. Prompt. To assist triagers, this dissertation presents a machine learning approach to create recommenders that assist with a variety of development-oriented decisions. In this way, we strive to review the book, reduce human involvement in triage by moving the essay prompt triager's role from essay stories, having to gather information to contrast, make a decision to that of confirming a suggestion.

This dissertation introduces a triage-assisting recommender creation process that can create a variety of different development-oriented decision recommenders for a range of projects. The recommenders created with this approach are accurate: recommenders for which developer to assign a report have a precision of problems, 70% to contrast literature prompt, 98% over stories love, five open source projects, recommenders for which product component the report is for have a recall of 72% to 92%, and recommenders for compare contrast prompt who to add to the cc: list of a report that have a recall of 46% to 72%. We have evaluated recommenders created with our triage-assisting recommender creation process using both an steps to solve analytic evaluation and a field study. In addition, we present in this dissertation an approach to assist project members to compare literature, specify the project-specific values for thomas the triage-assisting recommender creation process, and show that such recommenders can be created with a subset of the repository data. Archambault, Daniel William. Degree : Doctor of Philosophy - PhD. Graduation Date : 2008-11. A graph consists of a set and a binary relation on that set. Each element of the set is a node of the graph, while each element of the binary relation is an edge of the graph that encodes a relationship between two nodes. Compare Contrast Literature Essay. Graph are pervasive in many areas of science, engineering, and the social sciences: servers on the Internet are connected, proteins interact in large biological systems, social networks encode the relationships between people, and functions call each other in thomas king, a program.

In these domains, the graphs can become very large, consisting of hundreds of thousands of nodes and literature essay millions of edges. Graph drawing approaches endeavour to place these nodes in two or three-dimensional space with the term papers on consumption intention of fostering an compare literature essay understanding of the research paper binary relation by a human being examining the image. However, many of compare prompt, these approaches to drawing do not exploit higher-level structures in the graph beyond the nodes and edges. Frequently, these structures can be exploited for drawing. As an example, consider a large computer network where nodes are servers and edges are connections between those servers. If a user would like understand how servers at UBC connect to review the book, the rest of the network, a drawing that accentuates the set of nodes representing those servers may be more helpful than an approach where all nodes are drawn in prompt, the same way. In a feature-based approach, features are subgraphs exploited for the purposes of drawing. We endeavour to depict not only the binary relation, but the review the book high-level relationships between features. This thesis extensively explores a feature-based approach to graph vi sualization and demonstrates the viability of contrast, tools that aid in steps problems, the visual ization of large graphs.

Our contributions lie in presenting and evaluating novel techniques and algorithms for graph visualization. We implement five systems in order to empirically evaluate these techniques and algorithms, comparing them to previous approaches. Cerebral : visualizing multiple experimental conditions on a graph with biological context. Degree : Doctor of Philosophy - PhD. Graduation Date : 2008-11.

Systems biologists use interaction graphs to model the behaviour of biological systems at the molecular level. In an iterative process, such biologists observe the reactions of living cells under various experimental conditions, view the results in the context of the compare literature essay prompt interaction graph, and then propose changes to the graph model. These graphs represent dynamic knowledge of the biological system being studied and evolve as new insight is gained from the experimental data. While numerous graph layout and drawing packages are available, these tools did not fully meet the needs of our immunologist collaborators. In this thesis, we describe the data display needs of these immunologists and translate these needs into visual encoding decisions. These decisions led us to create Cerebral, a system that uses a biologically guided graph layout and incorporates experimental data directly into the graph display. Our graph layout algorithm uses simulated annealing with constraints, optimized with a uniform grid to have an expected runtime of o(E/V). Small multiple views of different experimental conditions and a measurement-driven parallel coordinates view enable correlations between experimental conditions to be analyzed at the same time that the review the book measurements are viewed in the graph context. This combination of coordinated views allows the biologist to view the data from many different perspectives simultaneously.

To illustrate the typical analysis tasks performed, we analyze two datasets using Cerebral. Based on feedback from our collaborators, we conclude that Cerebral is compare essay a valuable tool for analyzing experimental data in the context of an interaction graph model. PVIT: A task-based approach for design and evaluation of essay observations, interactive visualizations for preferential choice. Degree : Master of contrast essay, Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-05. A common model for term ubiquitous computing. Blackstock, Michael Anthony. Degree : Doctor of Philosophy - PhD. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) is compare prompt a compelling vision for how people will interact with multiple computer systems in the course of their daily lives. To date, practitioners have created a variety of steps problems, infrastructures, middleware and contrast literature toolkits to provide the flexibility, ease of programming and the necessary coordination of distributed software and hardware components in physical spaces.

However, to-date no one approach has been adopted as a default or de-facto standard. Consequently the field risks losing momentum as fragmentation occurs. In particular, the goal of ubiquitous deployments may stall as groups deploy and trial incompatible point solutions in essay, specific locations. In their defense, researchers in the field argue that it is too early to standardize and that room is needed to explore specialized domain-specific solutions. In the absence of an agreed upon set of standards, we argue that the community must consider a methodology that allows systems to evolve and compare contrast specialize, while at the same time allowing the stories development of compare contrast literature, portable applications and integrated deployments that work between between sites. To address this we studied the programming models of many commercial and research ubicomp systems. Through this survey we gained an understanding of the shared abstractions required in a core programming model suitable for both application portability and systems integration. Based on this study we designed an extensible core model called the Ubicomp Common Model (UCM) to describe a representative sample of ubiquitous systems to date.

The UCM is instantiated in essay on classroom, a flexible and extensible platform called the Ubicomp Integration Framework (UIF) to adapt ubicomp systems to this model. Through application development and integration experience with a composite campus environment, we provide strong evidence that this model is adequate for application development and that the complexity of developing adapters to several representative systems is not onerous. The performance overhead introduced by introducing the centralized UIF between applications and an integrated system is reasonable. Through careful analysis and the use of well understood approaches to integration, this thesis demonstrates the value of our methodology that directly leverages the significant contributions of past research in our quest for compare contrast literature prompt ubicomp application and systems interoperability. Ontology alignment in the presence of a domain ontology : finding protein homology. Degree : Master of Science - MSc.

Graduation Date : 2008-11. Semi-automatic fitting of deformable 3D models to 2D sketches. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Reducing remodularization complexity through modular-objective decoupling. Degree : Master of steps, Science - MSc.

Graduation Date : 2008-11. SUE : an advertisement recommendation framework utilizing categorized events and stimuli. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-05. MAIDS for compare literature VoIP : a Mobile Agents-based Intrusion Detection System for Voice over Internet Protocol. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11.

A hybrid P2P pre-release distribution framework for steps flash crowd avoidance in P2P video on demand streaming. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Model-based active learning in hierarchical policies. Degree : Master of Science - MSc.

Graduation Date : 2008-05. Automatic juxtaposition of source files. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Supporting conceptual queries over integrated sources of program information. Degree : Doctor of Philosophy - PhD. Graduation Date : 2008-05. A software developer explores a software system by asking and compare literature answering a series of questions. To answer these questions, a developer may need to consult various sources providing information about the program, such as the static relationships expressed directly in the source code, the run-time behaviour of a program recorded in a dynamic trace, or evolution history as recorded in a source management system. Despite the review the book support afforded by software exploration tools, developers often struggle to find the necessary information to answer their questions and may even become disoriented, where they feel mentally lost and literature essay are uncertain of what they were trying to accomplish.

This dissertation advances a thesis that a developer's questions, which we refer to as conceptual queries, can be better supported through a model to essay thomas king, represent and compose different sources of information about a program. The basis of compare literature essay, this model is the sphere, which serves as a simple abstraction of a source of review the book, information about a program. Many of the software exploration tools used by a developer can be represented as a sphere. Spheres can be composed in a principled fashion such that information from a sphere may replace or supplement information from a different sphere. Using our sphere model, for example, a developer can use dynamic runtime information from an execution trace to replace information from the essay static source code to see what actually occurred. We have implemented this model in a configurable tool, called Ferret. We have used the facilities provided by the model to paper, implement 36 conceptual queries identified from the compare prompt literature, blogs, and our own experience, and to support the integration of four different sources of program information. Establishing correspondences between similar elements from different spheres allows a query to bridge across different spheres in addition to review the book, allowing a tool's user interface to drive queries from other sources of information. Through this effort we show that sphere model broadens the set of possible conceptual queries answerable by software exploration tools. Through a small diary study and a controlled experiment, both involving professional software developers, we found the compare literature essay prompt developers used the conceptual queries that were available to them and reported finding Ferret useful. Exploiting structure for scalable software verification.

Degree : Doctor of Philosophy - PhD. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Software bugs are expensive. Recent estimates by steps problems the US National Institute of Standards and Technology claim that the cost of compare contrast essay prompt, software bugs to planchette research paper, the US economy alone is approximately 60 billion USD annually. As society becomes increasingly software-dependent, bugs also reduce our productivity and threaten our safety and compare contrast essay security. Decreasing these direct and indirect costs represents a significant research challenge as well as an opportunity for businesses. Automatic software bug-finding and verification tools have a potential to completely revolutionize the software engineering industry by improving reliability and decreasing development costs. Since software analysis is in general undecidable, automatic tools have to use various abstractions to make the term papers analysis computationally tractable.

Abstraction is a double-edged sword: coarse abstractions, in general, yield easier verification, but also less precise results. This thesis focuses on exploiting the compare contrast literature essay prompt structure of software for abstracting away irrelevant behavior. Programmers tend to organize code into objects and functions, which effectively represent natural abstraction boundaries. Steps Problems. Humans use such structural abstractions to simplify their mental models of literature essay prompt, software and for constructing informal explanations of paper, why a piece of code should work. A natural question to ask is: How can automatic bug-finding tools exploit the same natural abstractions? This thesis offers possible answers. Literature Essay. More specifically, I present three novel ways to exploit structure at three different steps of the software analysis process. Paper. First, I show how symbolic execution can preserve the compare contrast literature essay data-flow dependencies of the original code while constructing compact symbolic representations of programs. Second, I propose structural abstraction, which exploits the structure preserved by the symbolic execution. Structural abstraction solves a long-standing open problem --- scalable interprocedural path- and context-sensitive program analysis.

Finally, I present an automatic tuning approach that exploits the fine-grained structural properties of software (namely, data- and control-dependency) for review the book faster property checking. This novel approach resulted in a 500-fold speedup over the best previous techniques. Automatic tuning not only compare prompt redefined the limits of essay, automatic software analysis tools, but also has already found its way into other domains (like model checking), demonstrating the generality and applicability of this idea. Presentation techniques for compare literature prompt more expressive programs. Degree : Doctor of Philosophy - PhD. Graduation Date : 2008-11. We introduce a class of program editors that present a program using a rich set of transformations; we call these kinds of editors composable presentation editors. Proper use of these kinds of editors appears to lead to more expressive programs-programs whose structure are aligned with the review the book problem they are trying to solve. By default, the composable presentation editor presents program elements textually as concrete syntax and enables typical editor commands on the program. Metadata on literature, program elements control how the transformations are applied.

Customized metadata can re-order, pictorialize, collapse, duplicate, or expand the displayed form of program elements and can additionally alter the stories love available editor commands. Literature Essay. We have developed a set of presentation techniques to be used by presentation designers (i.e., the programmers who design how a program is planchette presented in the editor. These techniques relate to well-understood programming language design, editor design, and programming best-practices techniques including scoping, higher order functions, refactoring, prettyprinting, naming conventions, syntax highlighting, and text hovers. We introduce two implementations of composable presentation editors and a number of examples showing how programs can be made more expressive when presentation techniques are properly used. The first implementation is the essay prompt ETMOP, an open editor, where a metaobject protocol is provided that allows language and editor designers to customize the way program elements are displayed. These customizations are called presenta- tion extensions and planchette research the corresponding presentation extension protocol acts in a way similar to the way that syntax macros extend the syntax of a language. The second implementation is Embedded CAL, a closed editor that uses these presentation techniques to embed one language (CAL) inside a host language (Java) through the use of presentation techniques, without changing the syntax or compiler of either language.

On the design and compare literature implementation of decision-theoretic, interactive, and vision-driven mobile robots. Degree : Doctor of Philosophy - PhD. Graduation Date : 2008-05. We present a framework for the design and implementation of visually-guided, interactive, mobile robots. Planchette Research Paper. Essential to the framework's robust performance is compare contrast literature prompt our behavior-based robot control architecture enhanced with a state of the art decision-theoretic planner that takes into account the temporal characteristics of robot actions and allows us to achieve principled coordination of complex subtasks implemented as robot behaviors/skills. We study two different models of the decision theoretic layer: Multiply Sectioned Markov Decision Processes (MSMDPs) under the assumption that the world state is review the book fully observable by the agent, and Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes (POMDPs) that remove the compare essay prompt latter assumption and allow us to model the uncertainty in sensor measurements.

The MSMDP model utilizes a divide-and-conquer approach for solving problems with millions of states using concurrent actions. For solving large POMDPs, we present heuristics that improve the computational efficiency of the point-based value iteration algorithm while tackling the problem of multi-step actions using Dynamic Bayesian Networks. In addition, we describe a state-of-the-art simultaneous localization and mapping algorithm for robots equipped with stereo vision. We first present the term papers Monte-Carlo algorithm sigmaMCL for robot localization in 3D using natural landmarks identified by their appearance in images. Secondly, we extend sigmaMCL and develop the sigmaSLAM algorithm for contrast essay prompt solving the thomas king simultaneous localization and mapping problem for compare literature visually-guided, mobile robots. We demonstrate our real-time algorithm mapping large, indoor environments in the presence of large changes in illumination, image blurring and love dynamic objects. Compare Contrast Essay Prompt. Finally, we demonstrate empirically the applicability of our framework for review the book developing interactive, mobile robots capable of completing complex tasks with the aid of a human companion.

We present an award winning robot waiter for serving hors d'oeuvres at contrast literature, receptions and a robot for delivering verbal messages among inhabitants of an papers office-like environment. An all-at-once approach to nonnegative tensor factorizations. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Usermode kernel : running the kernel in userspace in VM environments.

Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Monte Carlo integration in contrast essay, discrete undirected probabilistic models. Degree : Doctor of Philosophy - PhD. Graduation Date : 2008-05. This thesis contains the author’s work in and contributions to term on consumption, the field of Monte Carlo sampling for undirected graphical models, a class of statistical model commonly used in machine learning, computer vision, and spatial statistics; the aim is to be able to use the methodology and resultant samples to estimate integrals of functions of the variables in the model. Over the course of the study, three different but related methods were proposed and have appeared as research papers.

The thesis consists of an introductory chapter discussing the models considered, the problems involved, and compare prompt a general outline of Monte Carlo methods. The three subsequent chapters contain versions of the published work. The second chapter, which has appeared in (Hamze and borders king de Freitas 2004), is contrast literature essay a presentation of new MCMC algorithms for computing the posterior distributions and expectations of the review the book unknown variables in undirected graphical models with regular structure. For demonstration purposes, we focus on Markov Random Fields (MRFs). By partitioning the MRFs into non-overlapping trees, it is possible to compute the posterior distribution of contrast essay, a particular tree exactly by conditioning on thomas king, the remaining tree. These exact solutions allow us to compare essay, construct efficient blocked and Rao-Blackwellised MCMC algorithms. We show empirically that tree sampling is term on consumption considerably more efficient than other partitioned sampling schemes and the naive Gibbs sampler, even in compare prompt, cases where loopy belief propagation fails to review the book, converge. We prove that tree sampling exhibits lower variance than the naive Gibbs sampler and other naive partitioning schemes using the theoretical measure of maximal correlation. We also construct new information theory tools for comparing different MCMC schemes and show that, under these, tree sampling is more efficient. Although the essay work discussed in Chapter 2 exhibited promise on term papers on consumption, the class of contrast literature essay, graphs to which it was suited, there are many cases where limiting the topology is essay quite a handicap.

The work in Chapter 3 was an exploration in an alternative methodology for compare contrast literature essay approximating functions of variables representable as undirected graphical models of arbitrary connectivity with pairwise potentials, as well as for estimating the notoriously difficult partition function of the graph. The algorithm, published in (Hamze and de Freitas 2005), fits into the framework of essay stories love, sequential Monte Carlo methods rather than the contrast prompt more widely used MCMC, and essay love relies on compare contrast prompt, constructing a sequence of to solve problems, intermediate distributions which get closer to the desired one. Contrast Essay. While the idea of using “tempered” proposals is known, we construct a novel sequence of target distributions where, rather than dropping a global temperature parameter, we sequentially couple individual pairs of variables that are, initially, sampled exactly from a spanning treeof the variables. We present experimental results on inference and estimation of the borders essay thomas partition function for sparse and densely-connected graphs. Contrast Literature. The final contribution of this thesis, presented in Chapter 4 and also in (Hamze and de Freitas 2007), emerged from some empirical observations that were made while trying to optimize the sequence of edges to add to a graph so as to guide the population of samples to the high-probability regions of the model. Most important among these observations was that while several heuristic approaches, discussed in Chapter 1, certainly yielded improvements over edge sequences consisting of random choices, strategies based on forcing the particles to take large, biased random walks in essay, the state-space resulted in a more efficient exploration, particularly at low temperatures. This motivated a new Monte Carlo approach to treating complex discrete distributions.

The algorithm is contrast literature essay prompt motivated by the N-Fold Way, which is an ingenious event-driven MCMC sampler that avoids rejection moves at any specific state. The N-Fold Way can however get “trapped” in cycles. We surmount this problem by research paper modifying the sampling process to result in biased state-space paths of randomly chosen length. This alteration does introduce bias, but the contrast literature essay bias is subsequently corrected with a carefully engineered importance sampler. On detecting and repairing inconsistent schema mappings. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Multilevel multidimensional scaling on the GPU. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-05. Interactive tools for biomechanical modeling and realistic animation.

Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Shared displays to support collaborative exploration of ocean summits.

Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-05. Visual exploratory analysis of large data sets : evaluation and application. Degree : Doctor of Philosophy - PhD. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Large data sets are difficult to analyze. Visualization has been proposed to assist exploratory data analysis (EDA) as our visual systems can process signals in essay observations, parallel to quickly detect patterns. Nonetheless, designing an effective visual analytic tool remains a challenge. This challenge is compare contrast literature essay partly due to observations, our incomplete understanding of how common visualization techniques are used by human operators during analyses, either in laboratory settings or in literature essay prompt, the workplace. Borders King. This thesis aims to further understand how visualizations can be used to compare contrast literature essay, support EDA. More specifically, we studied techniques that display multiple levels of visual information resolutions (VIRs) for analyses using a range of methods.

The first study is a summary synthesis conducted to obtain a snapshot of knowledge in multiple-VIR use and to review the book, identify research questions for compare contrast literature the thesis: (1) low-VIR use and creation; (2) spatial arrangements of steps to solve problems, VIRs. Literature Essay Prompt. The next two studies are laboratory studies to investigate the visual memory cost of image transformations frequently used to review the book, create low-VIR displays and overview use with single-level data displayed in multiple-VIR interfaces. For a more well-rounded evaluation, we needed to study these techniques in ecologically-valid settings. We therefore selected the compare literature essay application domain of web session log analysis and applied our knowledge from our first three evaluations to build a tool called Session Viewer. Taking the multiple coordinated view and overview + detail approaches, Session Viewer displays multiple levels of stories, web session log data and compare prompt multiple views of session populations to facilitate data analysis from the high-level statistical to the low-level detailed session analysis approaches. Our fourth and essay last study for this thesis is a field evaluation conducted at Google Inc. with seven session analysts using Session Viewer to analyze their own data with their own tasks. Study observations suggested that displaying web session logs at multiple levels using the overview + detail technique helped bridge between high-level statistical and low-level detailed session analyses, and the simultaneous display of literature essay, multiple session populations at all data levels using multiple views allowed quick comparisons between session populations. We also identified design and deployment considerations to planchette paper, meet the compare essay prompt needs of diverse data sources and analysis styles. Towards smooth particle filters for likelihood estimation with multivariate latent variables. Degree : Master of Science - MSc.

Graduation Date : 2008-11. Semantics-based resource discovery in love, global-scale grids. Degree : Doctor of Philosophy - PhD. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Grid computing is a virtualized distributed computing environment aimed at compare contrast literature essay, enabling the borders king sharing of geographically distributed resources.

Grid resources have traditionally consisted of dedicated supercomputers, clusters, or storage units. With the compare literature essay prompt present ubiquitous network connections and the growing computational and borders storage capabilities of contrast essay prompt, modem everyday-use computers, more resources such as PCs, devices (e.g., PDAs and sensors), applications, and steps to solve problems services are on literature, grid networks. Grid is expected to evolve from a computing and data management facility to a pervasive, world-wide resource-sharing infrastructure. To fully utilize the wide range of grid resources, effective resource discovery mechanisms are required. However, resource discovery in a global-scale grid is challenging due to the considerable diversity, large number, dynamic behavior, and geographical distribution of the thomas king resources. The resource discovery technology required to achieve the contrast literature essay ambitious global grid vision is still in review the book, its infancy, and existing applications have difficulties in achieving both rich searchability and compare essay prompt good scalability.

In this thesis, we investigate the resource discovery problem for open-networked global-scale grids. In particular, we propose a distributed semantics-based discovery framework. We show how this framework can be used to address the discovery problem in such grids and improve three aspects of performance: expressiveness, scalability, and efficiency. Expressiveness is the first characteristic that a grid resource-searching mechanism should have. Most existing search systems use simple keyword-based lookups, which limit the searchability of the system.

Our framework improves search expressiveness from two directions: First, it uses a semantic metadata scheme to provide users with a rich and flexible representation mechanism, to enable effective descriptions of desired resource properties and query requirements. Second, we employ ontological domain knowledge to assist in the search process. The system is thus able to borders essay thomas king, understand the contrast essay semantics of query requests according to borders essay king, their meanings in a specific domain; this procedure helps the system to locate only semantically related results. Compare Literature. The more expressive the term resource description and query request, however, the more difficult it is to design a scalable and efficient search mechanism. We ensure scalability by reconfiguring the network with respect to shared ontologies. Compare Contrast Essay Prompt. This reconfiguration partitions the large unorganized search space into multiple well-organized semantically related sub-spaces that we call semantic virtual organizations. Term On Consumption. Semantic virtual organizations help to discriminatively distribute resource information and queries to related nodes, thus reducing the search space and improving scalability. To further improve the efficiency of searching the virtual organizations, we propose two semantics-based resource-integrating and searching systems: GONID and OntoSum. These two systems address searching problems for applications based on different network topologies: structured and unstructured peer-to-peer overlay networks.

Queries in the search systems are processed in a transparent way, so that users accessing the data can be insulated from the fact that the information is distributed across different sources and represented with different formats. In both systems, ontological knowledge is decomposed into different coarse-grained elements, and then these elements are indexed with different schemes to fit the requirements of different applications. Resource metadata reasoning, integrating, and searching are based on the index. A complex query can be evaluated by literature performing relational operations such as select, project, and planchette research paper join on combinations of the compare contrast literature essay prompt indexing elements. Term Papers. We evaluate the performance of our system with extensive simulation experiments, the results of which confirm the effectiveness of the design. Prompt. In addition, we implement a prototype that incorporates our ontology-based virtual organization formation and semantics-based query mechanisms. Our deployment of the review the book prototype verifies the system's feasibility and essay prompt its applicability to real-world applications. A content-based publish/subscribe framework over structured peer-to-peer networks.

Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Improving disk read performance through block-level replication into free space. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-05.

Lacome: a cross-platform multi-user collaboration system for a shared large display. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-05. An empirical analysis of lexical polarity and essay contextual valence shifters for opinion classification. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11. wypy : an extensible, online interference detection tool for wireless networks. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-05.

Web personalization based on association roles finding on both static and dynamic Web data. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Semi-supervised and active training of conditional random fields for activity recognition. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-05. JQuery - a tool for combining query results and a framework for building code perspectives. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11.

Parallax : volume management for virtual machines. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Support for time-sensitive applications via corporate polling. Degree : Master of Science - MSc.

Graduation Date : 2008-11. A Levenberg-Marquardt method for large-scale bound-constrained nonlinear least-squares. Degree : Master of literature essay, Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Achieving predictable timing and fairness through cooperative polling. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-05. MMSP : an alternative transport protocol for multiple co-existing networks. Degree : Master of Science - MSc.

Graduation Date : 2008-11. On managing visibility of resources in social networking sites. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Supervised machine learning for email thread summarization. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11. OmniStream : using centralized tree management for steps problems incentives-compatible peer-to-peer media streaming. Degree : Master of compare literature essay prompt, Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Fluid surface reconstruction from particles.

Degree : Master of borders essay thomas king, Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-05. An adaptive packet size approach to TCP congestion control. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Multi-view hockey tracking with trajectory smoothing and camera selection. Degree : Master of contrast literature essay prompt, Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Controllable, non-oscillatory damping for deformable objects.

Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-05. Multiagent learning and empirical methods. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11.

PSS : a phonetic search system for on classroom observations short text documents. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Evaluations on XML standards for compare contrast essay actual applications. Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Spatial trend prefetching for online maps mashups.

Degree : Master of Science - MSc. Graduation Date : 2008-11. Online experimenter : an evaluation of experiments conducted under local and remote conditions.

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5 Tips for compare contrast literature essay Creating a Photo Essay with a Purpose. As a photographer, you are a storyteller. The nouns are your subject matter; the verbs are the king, color and contrast that keep the story moving. A cast of characters all working together to compare get your point across. Instead of proper grammar, you ensure proper exposure. Instead of spelling errors, you watch for problems tack-sharp focus. For those times when the story is especially important and meaningful, or for when one image doesn’t say it all, there is the photographic essay. With blogging and social media, photo essays are more popular than ever: humorous or emotionally relevant, sparking debate or encouraging compassion, each with a story to tell. I’ve mentioned before that taking on a photo project is one of my favorite ways to contrast literature essay prompt reignite my love for love photography, but beyond that, it’s a great way to get your message across and have your work seen by a larger group. A photo essay is intriguing; it’s something to literature talk about after people hear that you’re a photographer and want to know about the glitz and glamour of it all.

It’s the perfect thing to tell them after you’re done going on and on about all of the red carpets, the celebrities, the fame, and the fortune. Borders Thomas King! It also can be extremely satisfying and kick-start your creative wonderment. By definition, a photographic essay is contrast literature essay prompt, a set or series of photographs intended to tell a story or evoke emotions. It can be only images, images with captions, or images with full text. In short, it can be almost anything you want it to be. Which is where I struggle mostwhen the options are limitless. In this freelance world we live in, I love a little guidance, a little direction.

Ideally, someone to tell me exactly what they want and promise to be thrilled with whatever I produce, for my fragile artist ego can’t take any less. While I continue my quest for that, I offer you these 5 tips for creating your own, completely without bounds, photographic essay: Each time I’ve had a very specific concept in mind before I started shooting, it’s never been the on classroom, end result. Compare! An example: for papers on consumption a hot minute, I offered a “day in the life” session to my clients. I was photographing so many of the same clients year after year that I wanted to be able to offer them a different spin on the portrait sessions I was doing for contrast essay them. I asked a long-time client if her family could be my guinea pigs for this and told them that we could do whatever they wanted. We went out for ice cream, had a mini dance party in their living room, and I photographed a tooth that had been lost that very morning. Then, very last, I photographed the two young daughters with notes they had written, which to be honest, I’m not even sure how they had come about. I rushed home after the session and edited those last note pictures first just because they were so different from what I usually shoot, and posted them on my personal Facebook page the heading Notes Girls Write . Planchette Research Paper! Within minutes a dear friend, and contrast essay, fellow photographer, commented that this was big.

Bigger than just the two pictures. She and I would spend the next year working on a photo essay that became a blog, that in turn became a book entitled Notes Girls Write . We photographed hundreds of essay, women of compare contrast literature prompt, all ages with their notes, each one later expressing having their portrait taken with their own words was an observations, extremely powerful moment for them. Prompt! Beyond my beautiful children, the planchette paper, fact that I can make a bed with hospital corners like no one’s business, and contrast literature, the award I won in the 4th grade for “Most Patient”, Notes Girls Write is one of research, my proudest accomplishments. It evolved on compare essay its own, starting from a few similar photographs that struck a cord in viewers and on consumption, becoming a large and contrast literature, powerful project, one of the planchette paper, biggest markers in my career so far. TIP: Don’t be so set in your idea that your project can’t outgrow your original concept. Your images will guide you to your end result, which may end up being different than you originally envisioned it. 2) If you think there’s something there, there’s likely something there. Compare Contrast Literature Prompt! For the last year I have been a “foster mom” with a dog rescue group.

Volunteers transport dogs that would otherwise be put down from overpopulated shelters, or seized from review the book, terrible situations, to compare literature prompt my area, where dog adoption rates are much higher. These dogs live in foster homes while they receive medical care and essay observations, basic training so that they can be adopted out to loving homes. It’s incredibly rewarding. Especially when I had hardwood floors. Compare Contrast Essay! I knew from the first time I met the transport van I wanted to borders essay king document what it looked like: a van full of contrast prompt, dogs that just narrowly escaped death arriving to temporary homes where they will experience a level of love and care which they’ve likely never known. I tear-up every time I see it.

I am also put to work every time I am there, so taking photos while holding onto a 100 pound German Shepard is tough. It’s going to take me several trips to have enough images to do anything with, but that’s fine. I have no idea what I will be doing with these photos. I know they will find a home somewhere: maybe with the essay thomas king, rescue group to raise awareness, or to compare contrast prompt help bring in volunteers, or maybe they will do nothing more than document my own story with volunteering, or perhaps something more. I’m not sure yet, but the point is that I have the images, ready for their time, whenever that is. Term! TIP: If you think there is literature essay prompt, something to it, there likely is. Essay! Even if it’s just a personal passion project. Take photos until you find the direction or purpose and save them until your essay takes shape. Contrast Essay Prompt! You may not end up using all, or any of the images, but in continuing to take photographs, your project will be defined.

I’m the “World’s Worst Over-Shooter”. Need one image? Let me take a hundred so we know we have it. Luckily for my bad habit, the photographic essay needs over shooting. Whether you know what your plan is, or have no idea want your end result will look like, the more coverage you have, the papers, better.

This is one of the few times I push my luck and ask my subjects to work for me until they never want to see me again (I only compare literature photograph people though, so if you are photographing mountains or something, you have the added advantage of not pushing people until they cry or yell). Don’t be shy. Stories! Shoot everything you know you don’t need, just in case you need it. Should your end product need supporting images or take a different direction than you originally thought, you’ll be ready. Take advantage of digital (if that’s how you shoot) and fill a memory card. Contrast Literature Prompt! You may end up trashing everything, or you may not. Steps Problems! I had no idea that my Notes Girls Write project would span for as long as it did, but because I didn’t turn down anyone who was interested in the very beginning I ended up with some shots that told complete stories and expanded on compare contrast prompt the original concept. TIP: Think big. If you are shooting an essay where mountains are your subject matter, see the mountain in planchette research pieces and compare contrast literature essay, photograph the surrounding trees, rocks, and whatever else.

This will save you having to return to essay love the beginning of the project for supporting shots, or having to compare essay reshoot if your essay takes a different turn than you planned. 4) Ask for help with image selection. I struggle with this oneI let my personal feelings get involved. Papers On Consumption! Throughout our Notes Girls Write project I was constantly picking images based on my personal feelingsthe subjects that I had connected with more, and compare contrast literature essay, the girls that I knew were most interested in the project. This is where it is so helpful to have someone else help. Thomas King! Someone who has no personal feelings towards the images and will help you pick based only on the strength of the image and not your own feelings. Even if people were not involved as subjects, you tend to have personal feelings toward images that the general public may not see the contrast literature essay prompt, power behind. I recently photographed several dozen sexual assault survivors as part of a photographic essay for a victim advocacy’s annual gallery show. Review The Book! This event is meant to put faces on compare essay the survivors and raise awareness, and has been a large local event for years. I was thrilled to be selected to be the borders essay, exclusive photographer, though this was one of the compare literature, hardest projects I’ve ever taken on.

The photo sessions themselves, whether five minutes or 30, were extremely emotional for the survivors and in the time I spent with them, I often learned a lot about their journey and experience. Planchette Paper! This made it difficult for compare essay me to pick which final images would be used for the show, based only on the power of the review the book, image and not my personal feelings. In the end several select friends helped me narrow each survivor’s images down, and literature essay prompt, the subjects themselves selected which would be the observations, final image used, as ultimately this is their story. TIP: All creative work is personal, and looking at photographs we take ourselves is incredibly hard to do with clear eyes. We see the mistakes, the personal feelings, the shot that could have been better.

It’s impossible to always set these aside so when working on literature essay a project that is incredibly important to essay king you, or large in scale. Have others help you decide what images to use for your final pieces. Bring in people who are interested in photography and people that aren’t. People that know about your subject matter and people that don’t understand it at compare contrast literature essay prompt, all. But above all, bring in people who will be honest and not tip-toe around your feelings. Review The Book! Lastly, also bring a thick skin.

5) Tell your story, in fact shout it from the rooftops if you can. Maybe your original idea for your photographic essay was to post it on your blog. Compare Contrast Literature Essay! Awesome, nothing wrong with that, but are you sure it can’t be more? Shop it around, who can it help? Does this benefit a group, an term, organization, or a person?

Could it inspire people? If you feel passionately about the photos, chances are that someone else will too. Contrast! Your photographic eye doesn’t stop when your shooting is borders thomas, done. If you felt compelled to take the time to create a photographic essay, there are likely “readers” for your story. Contrast Literature Essay Prompt! TIP: This isn’t the time to be humble. Taking on review the book a photo essay is literature, a large endeavour. While there’s nothing wrong with having it be something you only papers on consumption did for your own personal growth, showing it around can be helpful both in experience and compare contrast literature essay, longterm benefit. Post it on steps to solve social media, find appropriate places your essay could be displayed, and think about how it helped you.

Every single photo essay I have done has led to compare prompt an outstanding connection, or more work, and there is nothing wrong with getting those things along with the personal gain of accomplishing something you’re proud of. The ideas are truly for a photographic essay are limitless. Truly. Want a few more ideas for projects, try these? Have you ever done a photographic essay? What is your experience? Share with in the comments if you have, or have considered it. If you haven’t, what are you waiting for? Read more from our Tips Tutorials category. Lynsey Mattingly photographs families, kids, couples, and other groups of people who, for to solve whatever reason, kind of like each other.

Her portrait work has been featured in People Magazine, Us Weekly, BBC Magazine, and on national TV including CNN, Oprah, and Ellen, but most importantly, in the personal galleries of clients across the country. Her photography can be viewed at or on Facebook. Contrast Literature Essay! Excellent post Lynsey. I suffer from the same challenges as you in tip #4. I get caught up in my personal meaning behind some of my pictures. Apparently, others feel the same way. I have an idea for a photo essay I wanted to pursue, this article helped grow it further. King! Thank you. Wonderful article. I liked the essay prompt, picture for #3. This is the main reason why I think a blog is a much more interesting format than a photo sharing site such as flickr or 500px to research show your work; for me, the images are just part of the story, but the compare contrast literature prompt, words and texts can help define them, giving them context and body.

For me, an papers, image rarely works alone and usually comes in a set with a particular rhythm and flow; what precedes and prompt, what follows is a very important element of review the book, each capture, as well. One example from my blog, a short walk that I took recently along a humble neighborhood in literature Bangkok: I think the issue in Tip #4 is love, common to all creative endeavors: We all get too close to the material. In a previous life, I was a writer and editor, but when it came time for me to edit my own stuff, I had somebody else look at it. We have too much of ourselves tied up in the work to be objective sometimes. Wonderful article, thank you #128578; some of the examples are awesome and thought-filling. Thank-you for telling me about this!! It pretty much rocks. I am so glad that I came across this article this morning.

I am no pro photographer but just someone who loves capturing images to share. I have been asked to volunteer my time to capture a group of compare contrast essay prompt, students in Beijing, who would be traveling to Xian, the home of the terracotta warriors, to help out in a orphanage just 2 weeks from now. On Consumption! I have never done this before. They are not expecting much. Just pictures for the event. However, I wanted to prompt tell a story. A story of on classroom, these volunteers as well as the orphans and I have been struggling over the past week of compare essay prompt, whether is that what I should do.

After reading this article, I know that I am on the right path and hopefully help not to take pictures of people, but take pictures of the steps to solve problems, story behind the people. Thank you again very much. This is my first opportunity to use my hobby for a good cause, and I am very excited about it. Compare Essay! Thank you again for this great article. Term! Really good points and very motivational to get me on a riveting photo essay again. I did attempt one such photographic essay which I titled #8220;The World of Weeds.#8221; Would appreciate a few visits with any helpful comments or critiques. It#8217;s over at compare contrast prompt, one of my blogs and can be found here: you have some beautiful images there, but I would keep the focus similar. the shift in focus from review the book, 1, 2, 3 and 5 is radical. 5 the contrast literature essay, green plant on the corner and then 7 seems another sudden change. The drain-pipe is beautiful because the eye follows the path of the term on consumption, pipe and literature essay, so tightly focused. It seems to review the book be erratic because you have the wonderful still life of dried plants against compare literature prompt, nearly solid backdrops like walls and then sudden change to green plants that don#8217;t seem to steps to solve problems have the same focus.. but the compare essay, dried plants and wall work, the review the book, drain beautiful and interesting.

The green plants against walls work well with dried plants because they have similar conceptual style. Overall, is interesting group and should be developed some more. I recently completed my first photo essay as an eBook. It took me a long time to figure out contrast literature essay how to work with iBooks Author, but it was a great platform to construct such a vehicle to display digital photographs in a meaningful way. Borders! Unfortunately, it only publishes to iBooks, which translates, effectively, to contrast literature prompt having the eBook only on iPads. Photo essays in black and white.

This post inspired me to stories love start my website of photo essays. Contrast Literature! My current ongoing series is about a band I went on tour with and the different things I learned and encountered: I recently made a photo essay which was published in a mainstream web portal so I#8217;m quite happy about that. I agree that sometimes, photographs have to be put in context by using words to term papers string them together. Also believe that any subject can be turned into a photo essay. The Photo Essay is a piece where its the compare, photographer#8217;s voice through and through. Landscape Photography Tips. Review The Book! Photo Composition Tips. Beginner Photography Tips. Contrast Literature Essay Prompt! 2006 - 2017 Digital Photography School, All Rights Reserved / Disclaimer. Thanks for subscribing!

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essay on japan Japan - An Essay with Photos. Back by compare literature essay prompt, popular demand! I’ve completely rewritten this essay, and added a bunch of new stuff. Term Papers? I’ve also reformatted it, and made it easier to read. As of this summer of 2004, I’ve been in compare contrast literature essay prompt, Japan over 4 years and so my opinions and thoughts have changed since I first wrote this essay. Please note that these are all my own opinions based on observations, what I’ve seen here. I have not lived in compare literature essay prompt, all areas of Japan, nor have I visited all areas. I have lived in borders essay thomas king, Tokyo, the capital and largest city of Japan, and I have lived in Shizuoka, a smaller city of a half million people.

I will start out by saying that I’m torn between Canada and contrast literature, Japan. I love some things about Japan, but I hate others. It’s the planchette paper, same with Canada. Please enjoy this essay and feel free to send me your comments. Transportation: First of all, vehicles drive on the left side of the road here, as in England. It does take a bit of getting used to. It’s only a real problem in some situations, for example when walking across the road, or turning into traffic from a side street. You have to be careful to look for coming cars in the 'other' lane. There are quite a few North American vehicles here too. They've got some very small trucks here, but some very big ones as well. Trucks are sized according to essay prompt, the job they do.

Tiny delivery trucks can be seen parked on the sidewalk delivering goods to research paper, stores, while giant dirt moving trucks are in the construction yards. On the highways, large rigs, medium rigs, and small rigs move goods to compare essay prompt, far destinations. For moving earth and digging up the steps, streets, some really interesting machines are used. Some of these are very small and can dig about as much as a man with a shovel. They come in a variety of wild colours and shapes and sizes. They really look like cartoon construction machines. Cars are mostly Japanese made of course. And it’s true, there are many very small cars. However, recently, a trend toward bigger luxury cars and contrast prompt, mini vans is growing.

I've never seen a Korean car here, although they do sell them. I have seen all sorts of European cars though. Some very expensive cars, and some older rare models. Citroens, Mercedes, BMWs, and Volvos are plentiful. The young car drivers love to add a large bazooka muffler to make their car very loud. This is extremely annoying, and the police don't seem to care. Even small scooters and motorbikes are made very loud sometimes and term, highly annoying. But, it's part of the landscape here it seems.

Motorcycles: While there are a lot of compare contrast literature essay prompt little 50cc scooters everywhere, there are also many other motorcycles in other sizes. Essay? Most of the big bikes though seem to be the compare literature, racer type. I've only seen a few Goldwings or other large touring bike types. The best thing though about scooters or any motorbike, is stories, that you can drive right by stopped cars by going up the shoulder or between cars. Contrast Literature Essay Prompt? Everyone does it. Research? Bikes often even drive up the side walk to get into the front of literature essay cars at a light. So, on a scooter or bike, you're never stuck in essay love, traffic, you just keep going where ever you can find space to get through traffic. The 50cc scooters are cheap to insure and drive, and you can park them just about anywhere. Plus, you can drive them with no special bike licence, just a car driving licence is enough.

Young drivers though, can only contrast literature essay, drive a 50cc machine, and have to get a special scooter licence, since they're not old enough to drive a car until the age of 20. On Classroom Observations? The age of majority here is 20. I think they can get a scooter licence at 16. This creates a special species of 50cc racing bikes, and the very popular Monkey and Gorilla bike breeds. Compare Contrast Literature Prompt? These are miniature little bikes with fat tires and a tiny engine. I've seen large motorcycles parked with bicycles and scooters on borders thomas king, sidewalks everywhere. There's really a shortage of contrast essay places to park. Almost no street parking is to solve, available anywhere. As a result, many 'double parked' cars line the streets making it hard to drive a scooter or bicycle on the side of the street.

And many people drive their bicycles on the sidewalks. There's far more bicycles than pedestrians on the sidewalks, and it's madness at times trying not to get hit by school kids on contrast literature essay prompt, their bikes. A lot of people don't feel they need a light on planchette paper, their bicycle at night either, and wear dark clothing, making it hard to see them. Contrast Literature Prompt? Every bicycle has baskets and carriers for essay observations, large articles which people might want to carry on their bikes. I've seen old men with 2 or 3 giant styrofoam boxes of compare contrast fish, carrying them on the handlebars, whilst another couple boxes are on the carrier, and one in review the book, the basket. Mothers have special carriers on their bicycles for babies and compare contrast literature essay prompt, young kids. Research Paper? It’s not unusual to see a mother on a bike with 2 kids, or even 3! Downtown, and around all train stations, security guards are hired to compare essay prompt, try and keep bicycles off the sidewalks.

At times there's so many bicycles that people can't walk by. These bikes will be tagged, and after several hours towed away, never to be seen again. People don't bother to collect them and pay the fines, they just go and term on consumption, buy a new one. I've seen acres of bikes collected this way, that nobody comes to prompt, get. On Classroom? They ship them off to 3rd world countries, you don't even have a chance to compare literature prompt, get them at auction. This creates a bigger market for new bikes, and new bicycles are pretty cheap in any case. Motorcycles larger than 750cc have to be exported, then returned to Japan before they can be sold here. So, the factories do this all the time.

Therefore, if you really have to have a big bike, not only thomas king, will you have more trouble getting a licence, but you will have to compare essay, pay for that extra shipping in the price of the bike. I wonder if Honda has it’s own cargo planes flying everyday to America, dropping the bikes in crates to the ground, then loading them all back in and returning to Japan. Did I mention, bicycles drive both ways on all streets, one way or not? Well, not only that, but they drive both ways on both sides of the streets. And, of course most of them drive on planchette, the sidewalks where there are sidewalks on larger streets. Fortunately, most Japanese drivers are very careful and compare contrast literature, courteous about love, all forms of transportation. Bosozokus: And now we come to the hot-rodders, what I call the Bozozukas. These guys can be in compare essay prompt, gangs, or individual with just a bloody loud car or bike.

Often in steps to solve, the summer, and sometimes in the winter, you can hear or see a wild gang of contrast literature essay young punks out raising hell with loud bikes and scooters. Some of the 2-wheelers they use, I’m positive are kept specially for papers on consumption, this purpose, and are most likely not insured or licensed in any way. They are thrown together to literature prompt, be as loud as possible, and review the book, they are just as obnoxious in their looks, as their sound. Many are old 125 and 250 2-stroke bikes with stinger race exhausts, or no exhausts, bazooka exhausts, bare metal tanks, rusted frames, - whatever they have around will do. But they are obviously thrown together, unsafe, and nowhere near legal.

Their pilots are likely without a helmet or with a small old porridge pot hanging off the back of contrast literature their neck. They are dressed lightly with torn vests and dirty shorts maybe. They constantly rev the snot out of their smoke belching monsters to their obvious delight, and to the great displeasure of steps problems all those that hear and behold them. They ride like maniacs, ignoring all traffic signals and laws. Up the side, in between, around and through they go, revving and belching all the way. They assemble somewhere and ride out into compare essay, the night and you hear them from love your bed, late, somewhere in the distance, rumbling and echoing like swarms of angry insects. Frankly, I don’t think anyone, or any police pay them any heed. Literature Prompt? They are also a part of the tapestry of culture here in Japan. Gas Stations: I haven't seen many self-serve gas stations. Gas Station Attendants all seem to have gone to school to learn how to pump gas as well as possible, and the moment you drive on the lot, they run out to review the book, help and contrast literature, serve you, while guiding you into place. They know how to find your gas tank, pump your gas carefully, and research paper, generally are very good at what they do.

They all wear neat and clean uniforms, and many are young ladies. They even help you out into traffic when you’re finished, signaling you when it's OK, and wishing you well as you leave. Literature Prompt? Service is always prompt and courteous. They bring you your change immediately. They will do everything for you from unlocking your gas tank, to putting your key back in the ignition when they're done. All with a cheerful smile and many thank yous. Most gas stations in the city have hanging gas dispensers.

They have no standing pumps as we know them, but hoses and nozzles hang from the ceiling of a large roofed area. Trains: All the trains here are electric. On Classroom? Trains in essay prompt, Japan are of king three different types. First, there's the Shinkansen, which is the high speed bullet train we've all heard about. It's expensive, but good for traveling longer distances like city to city. It goes very fast, and essay prompt, is very comfortable, smooth and to solve problems, quiet. It travels on tracks of its own.

Second, are the compare contrast essay prompt, regular intercity trains, which are usually in the same stations, but use different tracks. The regular intercity trains are also very comfortable, quiet and quite fast. They stop more often, however they are cheaper. They are used for traveling shorter distances and commuting. On these two types of trains, there are attendants going up and down the borders king, aisles selling beer, sake, drinks, snacks, and literature prompt, souvenirs. The third type of stories train is actually like a subway and contrast, runs below and above ground. Sometimes they go from papers one city to the next, where cities are close together, or in a big city they are simply a way to get downtown or to another place in the city. Prompt? Many people commute downtown on these, and drive thei r bicycle to on classroom, the train station where they leave them all day in small parking lots beside the contrast, station.

Better get there early though; these lots are jammed with bicycles quite early, and people end up leaving their bicycles just about anywhere else in the area. If you come home early, you will have trouble getting your bicycle out, since people will have blocked all possible exits to the lot with their bikes. Many of these bicycle parking lots are run by workers, and they charge a small amount to leave your bicycle there. But in smaller cities, many of these lots are unsupervised and essay stories love, mostly chaos. Buses: Strangely enough, although trains are all electric, the buses are all diesel. They are nice and comfortable though, air conditioned and literature, go just about anywhere. The most amazing thing is at most of the bus stops there's an electronic system to tell when buses are getting close and how long to expect one to come. Essay? These are using a wireless radio transmission system to track buses. People get on through the rear side door of the bus, and essay prompt, get off at the front side door.

Sometimes though this is reversed and it creates a bit of essay stories confusion for visitors. The fare system is to pay more for longer rides. You get a ticket when you get on, and compare literature essay, pay when you get off. Up front and above, there's a large electronic board that counts up the fares. It can be quite expensive for longer rides, but reasonable for shorter rides. Most people pay with a pre-paid transport card that's also good for the city trains. You can get a bit of a discount with these. Larger amount cards give more discount. On Classroom Observations? The cards and tickets are magnetic on the back for machine reading, and have small punch holes and the amount left is also printed on the back in most cases.

If you don't have much left after you punch out, the machine will display a warning to you. Contrast Literature Prompt? In all cases it will show you the amount left on your card as well. When a bus stops for any length of time, say at a red light, or in heavy traffic, the term on consumption, driver will shut off the engine, then restart when the light turns green or traffic starts to compare essay prompt, move. These buses belch out a lot of problems diesel smoke, and their exhaust is not up high but down low so anyone on a bike or scooter behind them should stay clear when they take off. Transportation Notes: Public transportation, and in particular the train systems in Japan are very well developed and important to life here. Even though most people own at least one car, they don’t drive them very much due to traffic, the compare, price of gas, and highway tolls. Borders Essay Thomas King? Amazingly, trains and buses are always on time. Except of course when disaster strikes. After an earthquake, workers must go out and check all tracks before the trains start up again. During a Typhoon or flooding, public transportation can also grind to a halt.

Once in contrast essay, awhile someone throws themselves in front of a train and train schedules get messed up. Not for long though, as the system is problems, very well regulated and controlled by computers. I can’t ever remember hearing about a train crash in contrast essay prompt, Japan, although I’m sure it’s happened. And I guess these things are part of the reason why travelling by train or bus here is observations, so very expensive. In Toronto you can ride a bus to compare contrast literature prompt, the subway, ride across town, and ride a bus, all for borders essay thomas, the one time fare of two dollars. Here, I might take a bus to essay prompt, the train station for essay love, 200 yen, take a train downtown for compare contrast literature prompt, 600, take the subway across town for another 600, take another train for another 600, then take a bus somewhere for essay observations, another 300. Total cost of trip: about $20 U.S. Yes, you heard me, about twenty bucks to go across town! Shopping: There aren’t many large malls like we have, but there are many large downtown department stores, and of course many small stores lining most streets near the train stations. There is a real lack of ‘DIY’ type of stores here.

Many people like to do as much shopping in their neighbourhood as possible. There are some ‘hardware/outdoor’ type of compare literature prompt stores scattered around outside of downtown, but not that many. Planchette Paper? Discount liquor stores are everywhere. Downtown , it’s a strange combination of small, traditional specialized shops, and compare contrast literature prompt, huge designer department stores. Expensive imported items are big sellers downtown, with handbags, makeup, and clothing being the largest markets. Shopping is observations, also a great mix of Japanese along with Imported. I do not believe such a large variety of goods is available anywhere else in the world. This is not to say that I can buy anything here, I can’t. But you can’t find the huge variety Japanese goods anywhere else right along side the Gucci stuff. And the way the stuff is compare literature prompt, laid out here really reflects the Japanese style and art of steps problems perfection. Big department stores put any store to contrast literature, shame in America or Europe.

I have never seen such incredible window displays either. No expense is spared in either the store design or fixtures and decor. And the prices in those stores reflect that too. I’ve never see such a nice assortment of men’s ties as I saw downtown in Ginza at a large department store. Tables and tables of planchette ties with lovely colours and patterns. The reason I mention ties as an example, is compare literature essay prompt, because most tie displays I’ve seen were boring, with horrible colour and pattern selections.

The rest of the store was the same, a sort of essay artistic perfection was laid out for display everywhere. Essay Prompt? Everything just oozes wonderfulness. It’s just Japanese style overlaid on planchette research paper, the best of the world’s merchandise. Train stations are miniature city centres, and the area around any station is a hub of activity at compare essay prompt any time of the day and night, During the day you find shoppers, commuters, and students everywhere. Bicycles flit about like flies on a dung pile. Sidewalks are narrow, and cars are double parked everywhere. Coffee shops, fast food places, photo labs, convenience stores, and all kinds of small specialty shops do brisk business. At night you find working men coming home late up until midnight!

Many of these men stop for dinner or a snack, and perhaps a few games at research paper the local parlour. Pachinko Parlours are very popular. Inside you'll find crowds of people gambling on the machines, and loud driving music fills these places. Bright colours and lights are everywhere, looking very much like little Las Vegas inside and out. I've heard a lot of Pachinko Parlours are owned by wealthy Koreans.

Most players are heavy smokers and although air conditioners are constantly blasting the place, the air is foul and obnoxious. Only recently did I actually try a few games of Pachinko. Here’s my take on it: you basically pour a bunch of steel balls you just paid a lot of money for into this machine which looks like a cross between a video game and a slot machine. The machines are in tight rows with tiny stools in front of each where players crouch and sweat side by side. Ok, balls in, press start and the balls start falling down and bouncing around. Most, and I do mean most balls go directly to the bottom and are not seen again. However, some fall into special holes and you get points and special effects on the video screen which is the contrast literature essay, main thing you stare at. There’s no flippers, but only one control knob. This allows you to either flush all your balls or slowly dribble them into the playing area. In other words, you can piss away your money quickly or a bit slower.

Depending on the speed of the balls, they may go different places or hit different holes. The idea, I was told, was to planchette research paper, find a middle position where the balls were following each other into essay, a special hole. Thomas King? Most players I found do not move that knob around much. In any case, my balls were quickly gone and literature essay prompt, my game over. Term On Consumption? I left wondering why anyone would find it fun. Japanese women like to buy expensive perfumes, makeup, and compare literature prompt, accessories. Designer handbags cost upward of steps to solve 400 dollars.

A bar of beauty soap might cost 30 dollars. Japanese women really do keep themselves looking good. Japanese men too, spend a lot of money on literature essay, hair loss products to try and keep from going bald. The younger girls are now in on the act, with the makeup and accessory market for essay, the 10-14 year olds booming. Some things you just can't find here. One thing that strikes me, is that the drugstores don't carry many North American patent medicines. They have their own brands and types of drugs to buy. If you want mosquito repellent, there's no Muskol or Deep Woods OFF. Instead,, you buy a little can of stuff with the picture of a kid swatting a fly on it.

Does it work? - Well, as far as I can tell, not very well. I tried to literature essay prompt, buy a stick of underarm deodorant, but it doesn't exist here. Steps Problems? And this is in a very long hot summer climate. The only thing I could find is an overpriced powder spray can, and the selection was very limited. I guess since the Japanese wash and bath so frequently, they don't need it. Or maybe they don't sweat like we do, I don't know.

Please send 4 sticks of literature essay prompt Mennen Unscented Sports. (ok ok, I have enough now, thanks Mom) I couldn't find aspirin, Tylenol, Advil, or anything else at the drugstore either. No Peptobismal, no Listerine, no Vicks cough syrop, etc. However, I'm told if you put a dried red plum into hot greentea, you have a cure for cold and review the book, sore throat :-) The Japanese love their toys, and compare essay prompt, plenty of people have GPS units and televisions in their cars. Not to mention that every school kid over the age of planchette 9 has a cellphone to their ears all the time they're not in school. Compare Literature? I understand these kids run up some very high bills, but they can't live without them. The latest rage in phones is to have a digital camera built in and transmit photos on the spot to your friends or to to solve problems, the internet. Within months of the introduction of these camera phones, everyone had one. Cellphones play games, can have a GPS, play a choice of tunes instead of ringing, and generally are smaller and more flamboyant than anything seen in compare literature essay prompt, North America. E-mail and web surfing are very popular in trains, where it’s not allowed to talk on a phone, or have it ring.

It takes a great many button presses to on classroom observations, create a short line of Japanese on a phone. But using a combination of thumbs and fingers of both hands, a flurry of button presses provides a constant entertainment for many. There are cellphone stores just about contrast prompt, everywhere you look. Update: Recently I have seen such American items as Contac C, Aquafresh, and Bufferin. No sign of Tylenol of Advil though. Food: Here's where things get really different. The variety of veggies in on classroom observations, the supermarket is amazing. However, you don't find some of my favourites. Cauliflower and brussel sprouts are getting more popular - I have bought some, but they are expensive and contrast essay prompt, only in some seasons.

They do have what they call sweet potatoes, but they're not very sweet. They are yellow inside not orange, and aren't nearly as good as the yams we have back home. On Consumption? They are a popular and healthy snack, with some candied, some just roasted and generally sold and eaten everywhere. You can buy regular potatoes, but they're very small. The carrots and most other veggies are excellent though, and you can get dozens of types of mushrooms, most of which I'd never seen before. Regular white button mushrooms are very expensive.

Shitake mushrooms grown in China are now invading the market. My wife thinks they are not as good, but they look and taste the same to me. Other veggies I can't begin to name, but there's a lot of different ones, and they are great. In the meat section is where things are really different. Contrast Literature Essay? Chicken can be had, and cheap too, but mostly it's pieces with no bones.

I've never seen a whole chicken in the store. No turkey, darn. OK you might find a frozen turkey before Christmas, but it’s not easy to find, nor popular. Beef is, well, different. Mostly it's sliced into thin strips for stir fry, and review the book, it's expensive. Sometimes, you can get small, thin steaks which are excellent, but I've never seen a roast. Most Japanese beef is layered with fat throughout. This makes a greasy, but moist, tender, and tasty meat. I have bought Australian and American steaks quite reasonably though. Since the literature essay, big madcow scare, beef has become less popular.

Lamb is also not popular, but is also available but difficult to find. Problems? Pork is not available in anything larger than a 1 kilo chunk, and mostly the larger pieces are tenderloins, therefore expensive. I have bought some pork chops that were excellent, and recently imported pork is becoming more available. I’ve even seen Canadian pork. Pork is mostly sold in compare contrast literature prompt, thin frying strips as well. Review The Book? Bacon is available, and literature essay, good, but expensive. It’s much more meaty though than back home. FISH!: Now here is where the big difference is. The seafood section of the love, supermarket usually takes up about one third of the store and has everything a fish lover wants, and more. Some of it stinks, some of it is alive, and some of it is frozen. You can get octopus, squid, urchin, eggs, and every other type of fish or ocean critter that swims or crawls here.

All of it is compare contrast prompt, excellent, most of it is eaten raw, and generally I love fish. My favorite is salmon, and it's plentiful and not too expensive. Love? A typical traditional Japanese breakfast would be miso soup, rice, and fish stew. Sukiyaki is popular to cook at home for dinner. It’s sliced beef, veggies and mushrooms cooked in an large electric pan on the table. With a slightly sweet soya broth and essay prompt, plenty of cabbage and onion in it. It’s delicious. People do drink coffee, but mostly they get it from a machine, either cold of hot.

Most people prefer black coffee and I found there's no coffee cream in planchette research, the stores. Contrast Literature? They do have powdered coffee whitener which is popular. Essay King? The only real cream I've found is whipping cream, which I sometimes mix half and half with milk for coffee. Rice and Mochi: Japanese rice is contrast, naturally sticky in nature, and is eaten with everything. Very popular as a side dish, people fill a bowl with steamed rice and review the book, drop stuff on top of it, then eat both together. Popular things to eat on rice are pieces of grilled fish, or stir fried pork, or beef strips. Miso soup is slurped on the side. Tipping the bowl up to drain it is OK. In fact, most people simply drink it out of the bowl from the start. Literature Prompt? Leftover rice is formed into balls around a small piece of tuna, or sprinkled with bonito flakes, and thomas king, perhaps rolled in a sheet of seaweed, and kept for later as lunch or a snack.

A typical Japanese home will have at least one large rice cooker, and perhaps two rice cookers going all day. Contrast Literature Essay Prompt? Ditto the Japanese like to drink green tea at all times of the review the book, day. Electric hot water servers are popular to instantly refresh the teapot with the push of a button. Mochi is steamed and pounded rice formed into a cake about 3/4 inch thick. It can be kept for a long time and eaten later in different ways. Pieces can be grilled until they puff up and brown, then dipped in soya and eaten, or mochi can be added to soups. Mochi is traditionally made at New Years, but can be bought and consumed year round. Many people buy a small electric machine to make it at home at New Years. Compare Contrast Essay Prompt? Special rice is used for Mochi. I dip my pieces in Maple syrup, but that’s just me eh.

For a photo essay on Mochi Making, click here . Sushi Restaurants: North American Japanese restaurants usually specialize in Sushi, and well they should, since it’s a truly unique food of the Japanese culture, and it’s also the most tasty. What’s that? You think eating raw fish is weird? Hey, I took some to my parents back home and they liked it.(or maybe they just said they did :-) Basically, they cook a bunch of fabulous Japanese sticky rice, and age it somehow in a bit of vinegar and sake. Whatever, it is on consumption, formed in compare literature essay, the chef’s hand to a small wad, a dab of hot green Wasabi (Japanese horseradish) is added, and wrapped on top with a large meaty slice of raw fish - or scallop, or shrimp, or well, just about anything they can think of. BBQ’d eel, egg, and roe are very popular.

There are many types of sushi houses. There’s discount hundred yen sushi, where the slices are thinner, and borders essay thomas, the quality lower. I do not believe these places are a bargain. Then, you have the conveyer sushi places. Contrast Essay? These places have a moving conveyer platform all around the review the book, eating area where you choose and pick off the dishes you want right in front of you. You stack the plates up, they’re colour coded to price, and compare literature prompt, they total your bill based on the dishes in your pile.

I love these places. You can special order from the planchette research, chefs who are in the center of the literature prompt, bar right in front of you making up the sushi as you watch. Noodle Houses: When I first heard that people actually thought a bowl of noodles was a meal, and paid plenty in special restaurants, I thought, well, I wondered how they stayed in business, and wondered if people got hungry a half hour later. Now I know better. This ain’t no ordinary noodle cup.

These guys are trained experts at delivering the good stuff. You have many choices, but the old standard is a soya, miso, or salt broth with ramen noodles. Maybe a bit of review the book green onion sliced small, dry pickled bamboo, egg, nori (seaweed) or fish cake slices on top. Or, you could get the super deluxe noodles with pork slices on top. Recently I had a fantastic seafood with a butter broth noodle dish. Many of them are solid, healthy meals, and tasty beyond belief. It’s really wonderful slurping up these savory noodles and broth. Literature Essay Prompt? You get a really big bowl too.

At a really fine noodle shop you can get some handmade noodles that are the best. Research Paper? Plus, for me, there’s something fun about compare literature essay, making loud slurping noises and knowing no one will scold you, look strange at you, or wonder about your manners. It’s expected to slurp loudly.(see Mom, I was just practising) You would find there is no other way of ‘eating’ a large bowl of noodles. Sure, go ahead and tip the bowl up to your mouth if you want to drain the last of the bowl. It’s allowed. Soba Restaurants: These places specialize in a type of noodle that’s handmade from buckwheat flour. It’s darker and review the book, tastier. It’s enjoyed often in the summer cold, as are other noodles. Contrast Essay? But Soba seems to be a black art practised in term papers, special places. It’s also traditional to have soba on new years eve. Soba is the traditional Japanese noodle, ramen is a Chinese noodle.

Udon noodles are fat soft white noodles that are also prepared in these places, since they use the same types of broth and toppings. Okonomiyaki Shops: The name means ‘cooked favorites’. It is cooked on a grill, usually built into compare contrast literature prompt, your table. It’s a cross between a pancake and an omelette. You get what you like added to borders thomas, it. Shredded cabbage, eggs, flour and milk are usually the main ingredients. I like to have shrimp, squid, and bacon in mine. The hard part is waiting for it to contrast literature essay, cook, usually about 15 minutes. On the top of okonomiyaki is dribbled a brown secret sweet sauce, then bonito flakes are sprinkled on that. King? You add mayo to suit.

Mustard mayo makes it extra good for me. Red pickled plum strips are usually added, but they are bitter and contrast literature essay prompt, not to my taste. Fried noodles are also popular in okonomiyaki or as a stir fry at okonomiyaki shops. Bbq Eel Shops: Strips of eel are grilled until black over charcoal fires. Eel is very oily and not my favorite dish.

It’s eaten on observations, a bed of contrast essay steamed rice. My wife loves this stuff. I keep thinking about greasy water snakes. Sashimi: Sashimi is raw fish chopped or sliced up and eaten with small garnishes, and dipped in soya. It’s sushi without the special rice wad to wrap the fish around. It is chopped in small pieces and enjoyed with thinly shredded white radish. On Classroom? It is often a side dish, or an all out buffet of compare contrast literature essay a variety of pieces of fish and seafood. Tuna is planchette research, very popular for sashimi. Fatty tuna is the most special and expensive. Small drinking bars specializing in literature, sashimi and sake cluster around railway stations and bus terminals. Hell, they’re everywhere.

Sake Bars: ‘Izakayas’ are found in different sizes from essay on classroom tiny shacks to large restaurants. In these places, the emphasis is on the sake, and the food is to have something to wash down. Literature Essay Prompt? Downtown in many places you will find clusters or rows of what appear to review the book, be small joined shacks with banners all over and old wooden sliding doors. Inside each one is the owner around which might be an L shaped row of low stools at compare essay prompt a bar. Food and drink is prepared before your eyes. People smoke, drink and eat there in the evenings. They are inhabited by research paper, regular circles of friends who meet often after work and enjoy chatting and getting drunk on fine sake while munching on compare literature essay, Oden. These small places make me think of what a restaurant in papers, Japan might have been like a thousand years ago. Oden: This stuff is a bit weird for me, but some of it is tasty. Basically, it’s different ‘food’ on a stick which has been taking a bath in steaming water for hours.

The water looks like a very weak broth, or in other words, like the contrast literature prompt, wash water from to solve problems my old football pants. Favorite things to eat skewered on wooden sticks are: hard boiled eggs, white radish pieces, kabobs of what look like chicken fat pieces, and other stuff I haven’t investigated fully yet due to lack of interest. Usually, it’s self serve at Kombinis or Izakayas. Essay Prompt? There are also specialized Oden fast good restaurants. Essay Thomas? You fish around until you find something that’s interesting and retrieve it on it’s stick to your plate. You never know what you’ll find in compare literature prompt, there. Takoyaki: These are places that specialize in octopus takeout food. Essay King? Pieces of ‘tako’ or octopus to us, are coated in a slightly sweet pancake like dough and put into little round muffin like pans in literature prompt, rows. Then they are cooked over a fire bed or heater, turned once carefully with large chopsticks, and golden browned all over.

You stick one with a little pointed stick and pop it into your mouth - ouch, they are hot! You might squirt some mayo on it, but the essay on classroom observations, mustard mayo is the best on these too. Compare Essay? You often find little places cooking takoyaki at fairs, temples or ‘Matsuris’ (festivals) Some people have smaller takoyaki cookers at home, and they will cook them on essay on classroom, the kerosene heater in the winter. Pizza: There is such a variety of good things you can get on a pizza here, it’s really a shame they’re not offered back home. Potato, corn, mayo, and Seafood are very popular toppings. Literature? All the borders essay thomas, pizzas I’ve tried are delicious.

Popular pizza flavours are Sukiyaki, Mochi, Teriaki Chicken, and on and on the list goes. Delivered usually to your home by a 3 wheeled ‘Gyro’ scooter with a huge insulated pizza box on the back. Kombini Stores: No essay on Japanese food can be complete without at least mentioning the ubiquitous ‘convenience’ stores: 7-11, Ministop, Lawson’s, Family Mart, or Daily Store. Literature Essay Prompt? These are the review the book, names of the big chains of compare contrast literature stores you find on every corner. Borders Essay Thomas? They sell everything.

They have a great selection of essay food. Some even sell sake, liquor, beer, and wine. Borders Thomas King? You can get some decent full meals, sandwiches, and compare essay prompt, salads there. Also many have hot chicken pieces, coated weiners on a stick, Oden, and steps problems, one of my favorites, Nikuman. These are soft, fluffy white semisweet puffballs with a pork and gravy or vegetable filling.

They also have Pizamans with pizza like fillings. Hot and literature, quick to paper, go, these are popular in the winter between the literature essay prompt, store and home. Roving Delivery Trucks: There are many types of roving vehicles selling fruit and veggies, gyoza (chinese dumplings), or as shown below, Yakiimo (Japanese baked sweet potato). You can see that he has a wood stove build onto the back of his little pickup truck. Tasty, but rather expensive. These guys have a speaker playing loudly, announcing their delicious wares. Restaurant Notes: I’ve now had time to experience most of the different types here. I can’t begin to describe what it’s like to essay stories, be in some of these places, but it’s a big plus to visiting Japan. It’s a delightful experience where at times you will be removing your shoes and squatting on tatami at a low table, and other times you will have your meal cooked on a grill in the table you are sitting at.

At times you will pick plates of compare contrast food from borders a moving platform in front of you, and at other times you will pick out food on sticks that sit and cook in a bath of Oden broth, while huddling in a tiny Sake bar that holds 8 people just barely. I should also mention that everywhere in Japan, there are also excellent foreign restaurants. I have eaten at contrast prompt fine Indian, Indonesian, Arabic, Chinese, and Korean restaurants, and I’ve had a Guinness on thomas king, draft at an Irish pub. There are also McDonald’s, Kentucky Fried Chicken, and Japanese burger chains. Mos Burger makes fantastic burgers, chilli, and fries for a junk food fix every week or so. Kentucky Fried has great chicken here! Pieces are large and meaty. Even the wings are good.

McDonald’s, I’m sorry to report, is the same as everywhere. They do have some better specialty items in contrast essay, chicken and seafood burgers, but overall I avoid them like the plague. Chopsticks: No essay on planchette paper, Japan would be complete without a section on compare contrast, chopsticks. Chopsticks are used for everything possible. Only rarely will a Japanese stoop to to solve problems, using a Chinese soup spoon to sip broth or help get something elusive to the sticks. Everyone says I handle them well, and no doubt about it, I find them easy to learn and fun to eat with. I prefer disposable wooden sticks you break apart since they have a rough texture for grip, squarish edges, and are thick. I just cleaned out our utensil drawer and must have piled up 40 or 50 sticks from there. We also have some higher priced lacquered wooden sticks that are longer, round, and compare contrast essay prompt, more pointed, but I find them a nuisance to stories, use and grab stuff with. These sticks though are narrow, round, and slippery. Prompt? I can handle any sticks, but frankly I much prefer the plain cheap wooden sticks.

Besides, they feel more primitive, which chopsticks basically are anyway. I love chopsticks. Here’s some chopstick etiquette and tips for you: never actually touch the chopsticks to your lips, that’s not very hygienic. Especially if you’re dragging stuff from a large communal plate, heh heh. Rest them either on the plate, or on special stick holders provided, when you’re not using them. Never let them touch the table. Keep the upper stick slightly further out than the lower one. Review The Book? Hold the compare literature essay, sticks up toward the top ends; don’t try to steps to solve problems, use them too short. And there’s no need to hold them tightly, just grip them in a relaxed manner. Hold your bowl right up under your mouth so you can use short strokes to compare contrast literature essay prompt, shovel and pour stuff into your mouth and not spill a drop. Oh, and those hot white napkins in steps, a plastic bag - you use them to clean your hands before a meal - after use, fold it up and put it beside your plate on the plastic casing and compare contrast, forget about it.

It’s a strange practice, just do it. Education: Here in Japan, children have to qualify for a good high school, then qualify for a University after high school. That means plenty of extra classes and tutoring in ‘cram schools’ trying to get the planchette research paper, best marks possible. Otherwise, a kid will have to attend one of the 'dumb' schools. Kids are at compare contrast literature essay prompt school almost everyday, and from early to late in the day as well. On the weekend they might attend extra classes or play sports at school, but they are at school most of love Saturday, and sometimes on Sunday as well. They have lunch at school - no going to the mall for a pizza slice. Older high school kids though, do get to go out during the day sometimes, and compare contrast literature, do get some freedom.

The system is planchette paper, beginning to slowly change here. The school uniform tells the tale. Compare Contrast Essay? Not only do the lesser high schools have poorer equipment and teachers, but their uniforms are more drab and plain. So everyone can tell immediately you're a dumb kid by what you wear. Young boys will wear shorts year round until high school, and elementary school girls wear skirts year round. Borders King? In high school the compare contrast literature essay, uniforms are much more complex, and can be custom tailored. Borders Thomas King? Most girls make their skirts extremely short. On their bicycles, they're a sight to behold; all those bare legs everywhere - wow! However, they wear dark spandex underwear, so the literature essay, leg show is as far as it goes. It does get cool here in winter, but the kids don't seem to mind.

Oh, another thing is, most of the schools are not heated. Some of the private schools are, but mostly the kids just have to put up with a cold school. I've never seen such sophisticated equipment for sports outside of professional teams. For baseball, they have automatic ball throwing machines, and not just one or two, but rows of them for batting practice. Archery is very popular, with kids carrying longbows in cases on their bikes and quivers on their backs.

Soccer of course, is played constantly, at all ages, by the boys. Every morning you will hear the sounds of orchestra instruments being tortured and sometimes harmonized for steps, the hour or more before high school classes begin. Housing: Many older buildings have low doorways - ouch! Land and houses are so expensive, I don't know how anyone can afford to buy a house. In the city, a house makes up 40% of the price of buying. Compare Contrast Literature? The land is the thomas, other 60%. Compare Essay? In the country, an old house would make up 5% of the essay, price. And the contrast essay prompt, lots are small - just big enough for the house - no yard - right to the street - right to the corner of the street.

There are only sidewalks on essay on classroom observations, the larger streets, but usually a line is painted on the sides of essay all roads, where people can walk. Steps To Solve Problems? And the side streets are very narrow, larger cars really have a problem going to a lot of places. Large convex mirrors at the corners help you see what’s coming. People park their cars anywhere they can. Compare Contrast Prompt? There's no street parking, and many houses don’t have a parking space. Steps Problems? In every neighbourhood though, there are pay parking lots where people pay ridiculous monthly fees to contrast literature, keep their car.

The place where we live wants about $150 a month for review the book, parking! I don't think I'll be getting a car here. Apartments are small. Bedrooms are very small. There are no closets to hang clothes in bedrooms. I'm still trying to figure out where people hang their clothes, but plenty of clothes hanging units are available to buy, to essay, hang your clothes on. The trouble is, I don't have any place to put the units. Many people sleep on futons, and every morning they hang them out on term papers, the balcony, beat the dust out of them, and air them out. People have their washing machines on the balcony and every morning they do a load of washing and hang it out on special long poles on the balcony. And people use only cold water for washing clothes. Hardly anyone has a clothes dryer, they're too expensive to run and take up too much space.

Electricity costs about double what it does in Canada, so you don't want to literature, use any more than you have to. Kitchens are really different here. There are no ranges, but only steps to solve problems, a duel burner gas table. This does have a small fish grilling oven inside, but nowhere to compare contrast literature, cook even a small roast. Everyone of course has a microwave oven, and some of them have heating elements built into them. Review The Book? Refrigerators are very compact to save space, but are surprisingly big inside. And they work well. The Japanese are fastidious about compare literature prompt, cleanliness and like to borders king, keep their place spotless. Contrast Essay Prompt? They always remove their shoes at the door and wear slippers.

In tatami rooms though, even slippers are not allowed. Tatami are large woven thick ‘reed’ mattes laid into a floor. Each matte is about 1 by planchette research paper, 2 metres. It is made from some natural straw like plant material and is woven very dense and strongly. Rooms are sized according to compare literature prompt, how many mattes it takes to stories, fill it. A small room would be a 6 tatami room, a large room might be 9 or 10 tatami in compare contrast essay, size. Heating: I decided to have a special section on the subject of heating homes. There are no central furnaces in the homes here.

Instead, individual room heaters of all types are used. Most people heat with kerosene or city gas room heaters. Kerosene is the cheapest, and is what I use here mostly. Although the essay observations, word kerosene conjures up stinky, primitive and literature essay prompt, dangerous old heaters, the type used the most in Japan are very modern and efficient machines. Steps To Solve? They are electronic and have computer controls, a fan, a timer, and many automatic functions in them. Compare? They light themselves at term the push of contrast literature essay prompt a button, adjust themselves to the digital temperature you set it at, and have forced air fans to blow the heat out. Not bad for thomas, a kerosene heater, they really pump out contrast essay prompt lots of heat quickly.

The latest ones even advertise to have no smell. I bought one of these, and it is a big step up from the old ones, but still your place does have that lingering kerosene smell. And of course you have to refill them every 3 or 4 days. You get kerosene at any gas station, and there are small kerosene trucks that drive around the streets at the same time each week. We bought two electric blankets and have been warm in bed at research paper least in winter, ever since. Compare Contrast Essay Prompt? Click here to term papers, see some Japanese heaters and A/C units. Air Conditioning: Newer houses and people with money use the air conditioners they built into each room for heating as well as cooling in summer.

These air conditioners are interesting. They come in different sizes and are optionally installed into rooms. Contrast Essay Prompt? The cooling/heating unit sits outside, many times on the balcony or side of the building. Some are on the roof, or perhaps at steps problems the side or back of the house on blocks on the ground. Literature? The inside radiator/control units are installed up high on a wall, and are controlled by wireless remote control. Pets: Many Japanese dogs live outside chained up, and bark most of the time.

Most of these types of dogs are Japanese Shibas and look unkempt, mangy, and flea-bitten. Some dogs are kept inside, but then a lot of them are in a cage just inside the front door. Rarer breeds of dogs are becoming more popular, and they are very expensive. I saw a bulldog puppy going for love, close to $10,000 dollars in a pet store. Other more regular puppies can be had as low as $1000.00. Unfortunately too, people are breeding whatever they can to sell. There seems to contrast, be little care about the qualities of the dogs, so many of them have problems. Good news to me was that the borders thomas, Vets here are cheaper than in Canada. I guess they have to be or no one would take their dog in.

However, for contrast literature prompt, some reason the price of the new flea systems are outrageous. I guess that’s because they are so necessary here. Few people spay or neuter their dogs here, so many of review the book them are viscous and fight all the time. That's why they are almost always on a leash when walked. Beside, no one bothers with any training of their dogs, so they don't come if let off their leash. Essay Prompt? I think it's the Buddhist way not to alter animals. However, it's really too bad, most dogs are very antisocial, and are constantly looking for a bitch in heat. They never play, they're so busy doing this.

There are very few areas to let your dog run. Even then, people frown on it, and there's always people where ever you go, so you have to watch your dog all the time. Small parks throughout the review the book, cities have signs saying no dogs. Contrast Literature? It's ok, since most of essay stories love them have no grass, simply gravel. fortunately, there are hills around with hiking trails on them for walking dogs, if you're lucky enough to live close to compare contrast essay prompt, one that is. There are about a million homeless cats living in Tokyo. To Solve? Everywhere in essay, Japan you see cats living outdoors. The parks are full of them, and many people regularly feed them there. On Classroom? People also make little homes for contrast literature, them in thomas, the bushes in cardboard boxes with old umbrellas over head.

It’s very sad, as many of these cats are obviously suffering from various kinds of essay prompt parasites and borders king, diseases. I can understand not wanting a cat in compare contrast literature, a home which has a floor made up of reed mattes. I would never feed these cats. Homeless and Discrimination: Plenty of review the book people are living in the parks and on the beach. They are mostly older men who have no savings, no job, and compare literature, can't afford to review the book, live anywhere else. The city provides no place for this type of person to stay, and contrast essay prompt, seems to turn a blind eye to the fact that some of them even have permanent tents erected in the parks where they live. These people seem to papers, leave a lot of garbage around, but surprisingly most of them are not drunks. Prompt? They are just poor people nobody wants anymore. Planchette Paper? Japan is a society for the young. Essay? If you don't have a high education and make it early in life, everything will pass you by. No wonder the kids are studying hard all the time to get into the best schools.

Ads in newspapers blatantly advertise for 'good looking, under age 30' people; age discrimination is the normal here. Papers On Consumption? Also, young receptionists are always young and compare contrast literature, beautiful; nobody hires an old or ugly person. Sex discrimination - you bet! Women are hired for secretarial work; men for construction work. There are very few women in top management or government. It is changing, but very slowly. Computers: Computers here are for business. Video games are played on review the book, game machines. My local computer store has a really good selection of computers, parts, and business software. The PC game software department is very very small.

Most adults don't play games, only kids do. And they play them on literature essay prompt, xboxes, playstations, gameboys, segas and nintendos. My local mega-computer store has maybe one joystick and term papers, a second rate steering wheel for PC gaming. More and more people are getting on the internet now at literature essay home here with high speed ADSL. Computers and on classroom observations, parts are plentiful and contrast literature, pretty cheap here. However, they always seem to be one generation behind North America in hardware. The most popular computers are the compact, cutesy designer ones with bright colours and round lines. Keyboards do have Japanese and English characters on them but English characters are used for input of all Japanese language.

They enter English characters according to the sound of the Japanese they are typing, called Romaji, but it's converted through a complicated procedure to Japanese characters in the computer. English: Almost everything has some English on it. I'm not sure why that is, because most people don't understand or care less about it. However, products usually have English names, sometimes meaningless, often cutsey. Essay Thomas King? The funniest thing I have seen was a TV ad for compare literature essay, a laxative. It's called 'Run U Soft'! Many stores and research paper, what few street signs there are, are in compare contrast prompt, English.

Some are in Japanese. Some are in both languages. There are some TV stations that show bilingual movies, and most TVs can change the sound to either one language or the other. Borders? NHK, the government run TV station, also broadcasts the News in both languages, which is nice for me. There's some very helpful agencies that help out English speakers with lists of professionals that know English. Everything from dentists to lawyers who speak English are available almost everywhere. However, most people you meet do not speak English. Sure, most people have many years of contrast literature essay prompt schooling in English, but they won't know what you say or be able to help you much using English. That includes police, store clerks, and planchette research, just about anyone on the street. However, you will meet some younger people that are just waiting for a chance to try out their English with you, and are very helpful. Unfortunately, when people speak Japanese to compare contrast literature, me, they don't seem to realize that in order for a beginning Japanese speaker to understand them, that they have to speak slowly and clearly.

It helps to know how to say in to solve, Japanese things like 'please speak more slowly'. Overall though, the people are very friendly and helpful here. Bathrooms: Washrooms are always split with a small room for the toilet, a room for the bath and shower, and a room for the sink, mirror, and contrast essay prompt, perhaps the review the book, washing machine. Most Japanese do not shower every day, they have a bath every night before bed. Essay? Tubs are very small mostly, just big enough for me to squat in. But they are very deep. It's very common to have what I call a 'Pussy Washer' attached to your toilet. This device is essay love, amazing, and a great thing for everybody.

It has 2 different washing functions. One is for women, one is for your rear. After a warm water rinse, hot air blows to dry you off. They take a little getting used to, but no Japanese wants to live without one. Compare Literature Essay? TV ads for these show giant peaches in essay thomas king, the air over the city being hit by streams of prompt water from term papers on consumption below. You just have to see it to prompt, believe it. The toilet is located in a small room by itself. Strangely, there doesn't seem to be even a sink in there to wash your hands, although many do have a sink of sorts built into the top of the toilet tank. The bath tub room will have a floor with a drain and the shower is usually outside the tub in that area.

The main bathroom area will have a small sink and planchette, mirror, and perhaps the washing machine. I find myself constantly banging my elbows turning around in these rooms. Japanese families traditionally have a common bath every night before bed. The father gets first go at the bath water in most cases. Special additives are put in the water to make it smell good, keep it sterile, and I think colour the water to make it hard to tell if it's getting dirty.

Everyone rinses and washes off before the compare prompt, bath, by sitting on a special little plastic stool and using a small bowl of review the book water for washing. Compare? The bathtub has a cover to put on between uses, so the borders, water stays hot. Usually this bath water is essay, recycled in the morning, when it's sucked out into the washing machine that's nearby. Some Japanese will spend $80,000 on a car but are too cheap to problems, have a shower! The shower head will have a long flexible hose to make it easy for contrast essay, washing off prior to getting in the tub, or rinsing after coming out. It's not really designed as a shower as we know it.

Garbage: Everything possible is recycled in essay on classroom, most places. Prompt? However, in large cities, recycling has seen a decline lately. There are special days and places for almost everything the city picks up on essay thomas, the street. First of all, you sort all garbage. Normal burnable garbage is collected twice a week, and you put yours in clear bags that are approved for this in literature essay, a special place on your street which is looked after by papers, a local resident of that area. Recyclables fall into many categories. Cardboard, newspaper, and regular paper is collected once a week on a certain day and you have to bundle it up and put it in the designated place on your street. Cans and contrast literature essay prompt, glass are separated, bagged, and placed out once a month also in that place designated. PET, or plastic bottles are taken to the grocery store where they have a large bin for them.

But first you remove the tops, rinse them and squash them. Essay On Classroom? All plastic PET bottles are of the same type of recyclable plastic, and come with removable labels. This maximizes the amount that can be recycled. Contrast Literature Prompt? Brand labels are not printed on the plastic, but are on special light plastic wrappers that can easily be removed when you use them. All of this is government regulated, but it's the people who make this system work. What can’t be recycled is burned or land filled. Much of stories what can be, is recycled. Non-burnable ‘other’ garbage is compare literature essay prompt, collected as well every week on a special day. Overall, I think North American governments should take a really close look at this garbage system and learn from it. The Japanese have no choice, they have limited place to landfill and so they have to do these things.

The question is, how long will North Americans continue to bury most of paper their garbage in the ground? It's amazing how little effort it takes for compare contrast essay prompt, each of us to essay stories love, separate our garbage and make it easier to recycle things. But it's up to the government to make people realize it's important to do. Literature Essay Prompt? It's up to the government to make systems work for recycling. Many private trucks also drive around the city here collecting things to recycle.

Things like old scooters, bicycles, and newspaper are collected and money made from them. Many apartments in Canada have large garbage bins, where literally everything gets dumped and taken away for term papers, landfill. Also interesting here is compare contrast essay prompt, that parks have stopped having garbage bins. People are expected to essay, take their own garbage home to dispose of it. I guess too many people started dumping anything they felt like in the park bins and they had to remove them.

Unique and Traditional Japanese Things: I couldn’t find a category for some things, so I will mention them here. One thing that is essay, different is the trucks roaming the streets in on classroom observations, the daytime selling various products. They usually drive a mini-truck and have a loudspeaker blaring out their messages about their product. They are all different though, and some like the compare contrast literature prompt, tofu guy might only have a small cart or bicycle and use a special whistle to essay on classroom observations, attract buyers. You hear them around dusk. The Hokkaido milk guy comes around twice a week at noon blaring his cute advertising jingle on the loudspeaker of his truck. When he’s in the area, you must know the time he comes, and meet him on the street to buy from his truck. Then there is the laundry pole guy. Contrast Literature? He is the most obnoxious and cruises very slowly in his truck with long aluminum poles in the back. He has a speech recorded, also with a catchy jingle to recognize him. There occasionally is review the book, a knife sharpener around, but not often enough to remember.

I think he has a bell jingling, almost like back home. There is also a guy selling baked sweet potato. Compare? This is usually a little pickup truck with a wood stove burning in the back! And of course in the winter, it’s the kerosene truck playing loudly like a music box over borders thomas, and over. It’s a reminder to contrast literature essay prompt, me I’m not back home anymore. It’s part of the steps to solve, sounds of Japan. What else is different here? Well, kids stay at home until they get married. These days that’s often until they’re well into their thirties. The eldest son will be responsible for literature prompt, taking care of his parents when they get older.

That also means he will get the steps to solve, house when they’re gone. Literature? But it can be the reason he can’t get married, since a lot of that caring will be expected of his future wife, and many women do not want to get stuck caring for his parents when they get very old. It is not unusual to see women walking down the street in a Kimono, especially in the summer. Term? Around the house, a man will wear a padded sort of contrast literature long house jacket. Homes will have a large table in the living area where the family keeps warm in the winter. Borders Essay Thomas? These tables, called Kotatsu, have an electric heating element underneath in the middle and a heavy table cloth falling around the outside to compare essay prompt, keep the heat in. Some people spend the entire winter indoors with one of these. Room air temperature is kept cool. They sit on cushions with no backing.

These are not for a tall westerner. I’d likely burn my feet and my back would be killing me if I tried this. Sliding papered doors with black enameled frames are everywhere in homes. The only doors on hinges might be the entrance and the toilet room. Every house has a bunch of bicycles out front, maybe a scooter or two, and at steps to solve problems least one car. Japanese people love plants and flowers and houses are usually adorned out front on the street in every possible place with trees, pots and hanging plants. In this climate anything seems to be able to survive the winter. In my old Shizuoka neighbourhood I could see a 30 foot tall grape vine climbing the front of a house and producing a great crop of green grapes every year. Also, there was a kiwi tree down the road that grew out over the attached garage.

Also seen in local streets are olive trees, plum trees, and fig trees. Essay? Orange trees are everywhere. It’s lovely to see flowers everywhere all winter. As the seasons change, the types of flowers change. Camelia, rhododendron and azalea bushes are common sights blooming at different times of the year and adding to the great beauty of the on classroom, cities and essay, country here. You will find small fruit and veggy stands or tables outside many homes in neighbourhoods. Research? There will be a small cardboard box you leave your money in as you help yourself to compare, a bag of essay food on the table.

Often these are locally grown in town. You can use your house it seems for just about compare essay, anything that doesn’t disturb the neighbours. You can open a fruit and veggie stand in your garage, or a hair dressing salon in your living room. In any given residential area you will find all kinds of local businesses thriving amongst the houses and apartments people live in. Thomas? A lot of small apartment buildings coexist among the literature essay prompt, houses. Often they will be 6 or 8 unit buildings and blend into their areas well. Strangely, apartments are called 'mansions’ here.

To the right here you see a display that you find in most homes during the time of essay observations ‘Girls Day’. This is a special time for all girls, and this is a collection of dolls that expands over contrast, the girl’s lifetime. It’s packed up the rest of the borders essay thomas king, year in boxes. Compare Essay Prompt? The display shown here is quite a large display. Some will be smaller, but every girl has a collection of dolls and a display much like the one shown here.

Boys also have their special day and a collection of dolls. But they are of a different style, in that the dolls portray warriors. Whereas the girls’ dolls are a Shogun and review the book, his court entourage, the boys’ is a Shogun and essay, his military entourage. Public Announcements: Another thing that’s a bit strange here, are the public announcements that are blared all across the city. Borders? Some are at regular times, while others at special times. They echo around like crazy and you hear a chorus of compare contrast prompt echoes following every word. A special announcement might be a message to look out for problems, some old person who’s escaped from the hospital, or it might be information following an earthquake or other disaster like a typhoon. It might be a warning about a tsunami, or ‘all’s well’ reassurance after a decent sized quake.

Most of the time, even my wife can hardly understand them. Police: Mostly you do not see the compare essay prompt, police around town much. You might see the odd one on bicycle traveling somewhere on duty. But mostly they just stay in review the book, their Koban places which are sprinkled around town. I don’t think very much happens for them to get concerned about. There is a real attitude of ‘leave well enough alone’ here. Sure the compare contrast literature essay, cops could go out and bust a bunch of young punks having fun on their loud bikes, but they don’t. They could pull over essay observations, cars with obviously illegal tinting, mufflers, or lighting, but they don’t.

I think they have their hands full investigating bicycle accidents on most days. Festivals (matsuri) : There are many large and small festivals going on, especially in compare literature prompt, the summer and the fall. Here is a photo I took of a small festival parade which went by term, our house. These festivals are religious in nature and start and contrast literature essay, end at a temple or shrine. You can see that the term, men are carrying a religious icon of some sort here. Compare Contrast Essay Prompt? The carriers chant and sing. Review The Book? Sometimes they carry a pretty girl on the shrine.

It certainly seems like they have a good time, and I’m certain some drinking of literature essay alcohol is involved. By the way, this little narrow street we live on is a two way street! Even small cars have to slow and carefully pass each other. However, many young kids on scooters and bike rip down this street like it was a racetrack. Old people walk and ride bicycles wandering along the essay stories, street, but somehow no one seems to get hurt. I personally drive very slowly along here. Hopefully one day soon they will make this a one-way street.

Changes: The Japanese are beginning to become westernized in prompt, many ways, but their tossing of garbage everywhere is the worst thing that’s happening. Especially the young people, who don’t seem to steps problems, care about the environment. It's a shame, most Japanese used to be very careful about leaving any mess, anywhere. But now I find styrofoam, plastic, and cardboard food containers just about everywhere. It's partially because of city cutbacks - they've removed the garbage bins from the compare contrast essay, streets. You won't find a garbage bin anywhere except in papers on consumption, front of convenience stores, and that's a private one taken care of by the store. In the parks you will find some garbage bins, but they're few and compare contrast literature prompt, far between. People are responsible to clean up the area around their homes, and that means picking up garbage and sweeping up along the streets. Essay Stories? Overall, the kids are well behaved, except for contrast literature essay, maybe their erratic bicycle driving.

There's very little delinquency or graffiti to be seen. Lately, I have talked with high and junior high school teachers here that tell me things are changing for students. They tell of plenty of term papers on consumption disruptive students, and a general lack of respect growing in the schools. It’s getting like back home, just not that bad yet. One thing that surprised me was that many Japanese men have not retained any of their old time manual skills. There are certainly craftsmen carrying on the traditional woodworking and compare literature prompt, ceramic industries. Borders Essay King? But the average Japanese male can hardly be expected to change a light bulb, let alone do an oil change on the car.

People work long, hard, and compare essay, late. As young students, they spend much of their spare time doing extra school work. There is review the book, no time for contrast literature essay, the old skills. Everything now goes to essay king, a specialist, or is contrast literature essay, simply replaced with new. Or I should say a specialist comes to you. If you want a new screen for your window, you call, and a window guy comes and review the book, measures up. Compare Literature Essay? He then returns in a few days and essay, installs the literature essay, new screen or window - efficiently and expertly I might add. And he can custom make aluminum frames to fit anything. There is no lacking in talent of the specialist workers. The same guy though, won’t be able to change a fuse on borders king, his home electrical panel if it blows. Literature Essay? Ditto the other trades.

I realized the research paper, state of compare contrast literature essay prompt these matters when I checked out the Mega Auto Parts store here, and review the book, the local ‘Home Hardware’ type of stores. Essay Prompt? You see aisles and borders thomas, aisles of fancy cleaning stuff, nice smelling electronic perfume dispensers for your car, row on row. You see cellphone racks, stereo and gps units stacked high, big chromed car exhaust pipes wall to contrast prompt, wall, custom wheels for your mini van piled up in rows, and accessories that leave no stone unturned. Drink holders, ashtrays with motorized filters, drink heaters, miniature drink coolers that plug in, - oh low and behold there’s some oil so you CAN change you own oil. Most oil you can buy though, is on classroom observations, expensive and contrast essay, exotic synthetic stuff, so mostly the guys into changing their own, are the guys with hot cars and black lights on the dash. I have analyzed the do-it-yourself culture here (being one myself for my whole life), and concluded the Japanese are way behind North America in the cycle of manual skills people have.

I mean, in North America back in the 60s, 70s, and 80s people were rejecting the old skills way, and light bulb changing had become a lost art. Then in the 90s people started renovating their own homes, people were changing their own oil again, tools were being collected and enjoyed. Steps To Solve? Before, doing these things had become something that was looked down on. It was something for the lower class. Then, people with too much free time started to find out the great satisfaction and pleasure to be gained by doing their own work, and making and fixing things. No longer was there a bad social stigma attached to being able to hammer nails correctly and expertly. Yes, we entered the Martha Stewart age. Literature Prompt? I believe Japan is just now starting into this DIY faze of life where it’s not looked on as being a lower class thing, and people are beginning to enjoy it’s revival. Stories Love? It’s only compare contrast literature essay prompt, starting here, but I’m betting in another 5 to 10 years it will be a much bigger thing here, like it is now in North America. Maybe even the women will get into review the book, it eventually like they are now starting to compare contrast essay prompt, do back home. Conclusions: Japanese society is very different from North American society, but I think the people live and think very much the same.

People go to work everyday, raise children, and believe in being good to their neighbours. They eat different foods, enjoy different past times, and term papers, speak a different language. I think the Japanese have a lot to teach us. If only we were interested in learning. I hope the Japanese can hold onto their morals and traditions. They have a unique culture of contrast literature prompt theatre, music, movies, art, and life.

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